Buy Essay Online -
Handbook of ellipsometry pdf 345 Кб
Book Report Form: Key Marks of ellipsometry Book Report Formatting. Here is an cancer cover letter, article on how to write a great book report. Book report writing is a difficult task. If you want to deal with it pretty fast - go learn this article! A book report is considered to be an easy assignment, requiring its author to thesis come up with a plot and character summary, and also state brief author information. This kind of paraplanner writing doesn't typically require in-depth analysis.
For this reason, this type of assignment is considered to be associated with K-12 academic level (high school). If a beginner were to write a simple book report, he or she would inevitably be looking for some kind of ellipsometry thesis pattern or form to rely on. One of such helpers in write for nursing college, book report writing is a book report template or a book report form. This is a standardized form that resembles a table with a set of questions in it. You simply fill out each section to obtain a book report that will be adequate for most educational purposes. Of course, book report forms will differ as there is no universally accepted book report format. Every teaching institution and even every teacher will have his/her own requirements and ellipsometry thesis will grade your book report against global research paper statement, those criteria.
For this reason, you should always bear in mind the assignment criteria received from your teacher and follow them closely. Below you will find a sample book report that you are free to use while working on your book report. The main point of ellipsometry this book report form is to make sure that all the required information has been mentioned. You are free to shuffle it around the way you want to on a celebration achieve a coherent and well-flowing book document. Ellipsometry. If you have a book report to write, feel free to use any of our resources posted here. In case you need the assistance of global research a professional writer, please feel free to contact us directly or place an order and we will be happy to thesis help you through your assignment. Whether you are a book writer in canada, need of ghost writing service, or work on thesis your own book and need help of professionals, we are here to help. Book Report: The Essential Guide to Writing a Catchy Book Report. Here is an article on how to write a application letter college book report writing. If you need assistance with it, feel free to contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you.
Writing a Book Report: Easy Recipe to Make a Powerful Report. Here are some useful tips on writing a winning book report. If you need our help to do a perfect book report, we are always here to help you. Enter your email address to ellipsometry receive exclusive members-only discounts. Cold. Starting August 2006 we have launched a module that checks any custom paper that we produce for plagiarism, be it a dissertation, coursework, thesis or a simple 5-paragraph essay.
We utilize latest technologies of web search to detect plagiarized materials and thesis guarantee 100% authentic custom written research papers. The procedure is as follows: whenever the writer uploads a completed paper to the control panel, our system starts an automatic plagiarism check in the background. Canada. The paper is separated into small blocks, called patterns. Then the system performs a web search by utilizing a so-called Rabin-Karp algorithm of string text search, thus giving the most precise results, (it even includes sources where the parts of the paper were copied from). This technology was invented back in 1987, and we found it to be the most adequate solution for our clients needs. Ellipsometry. Yes, we can develop a questionnaire. It qualifies as a research paper type of ellipsometry thesis assignment on our order placement list. As our name states, we take the confidentiality of our customers very seriously. Because of that, not even the writers know the thesis, identity of our customers; all communication takes place via messages between customers and writers. Thesis. We charge only for the actual content. Bibliography, references, title page and ellipsometry footnotes are free of charge.
It is easy to check: every word processing software has a function of word count. Normally, there should be around 250 words per page. This means a thousand words every four pages. So, dividing the essays cold, number of words by 250 you will get the actual number of pages paid. As you will see from the tabbed subject list on ellipsometry our website, we do cover almost every imaginable topic. We employ approximately 1200 writers who have all sorts of qualifications, and our company is constantly expanding. If a specific writer you request is busy with other assignments when you place your order, we will usually be able to resume match the thesis, order to research cover another writer who also has excellent credentials. We do handle rewriting of assignments. Simply let us know how many pages are needed to be changed and we will deliver it to you on or before the date specified.
Make sure you choose Editing/rewriting in the Academic Level section. Our company currently employs over 7500 professional writers ranging from Bachelor's to PhD degrees in ellipsometry thesis, various fields, ranging from SEO writing, article writing, to professional ghost-writing. They are assigned to the project based on the type of your order and the academic level of ellipsometry your paper. We generally allow our most experienced writers to pick-up orders themselves, as long as they have the ellipsometry, relevant qualifications. When a new order comes in, we circulate a notice to descriptive wedding celebration all writers in that field, and someone who is available and interested in your topic will chose to work on ellipsometry your project.
Our junior or less experienced writers require administrators' approval before they can start on write the job. Writers have competitive incentives to work towards and are well looked after, which means that we attract and retain the very best writers in this industry. We do guarantee the highest standards of the ellipsometry, papers we produce. However we cannot guarantee your grade. We also guarantee completely plagiarism-free papers as we check all of them with the latest version of plagiarism-detection software before delivering to essays canada cold the customer. In case you find any plagiarism though we guarantee the full money refund. No, our papers are never resold or published anywhere else. Unlike many of ellipsometry our competitors, we do not own or operate databases of essays and ellipsometry thesis dissertations. We think it is highly unethical to put reputation of our customers under question. Yes, you can keep track of the ellipsometry thesis, progress through your personal control panel.
Yet, maintaining contact with your writer is the most efficient way to obtain reliable information in regards to your order progress. Essays Canada. You can communicate with the writer directly, via the control panel. We provide one of the best writing services available. We have 100% customer satisfaction guarantee which means that customer satisfaction is ellipsometry, our top priority. NEED HELP? Start a Live Chat with an Operator, contact us +1-845-228-8552 or send a message.
A service of Insight Innovations LLC, Phoenix, AZ. Please enter your phone number to thesis get a call from our Academic Success Manager. We care about your privacy. Your browser is thesis, out-of-date. Please download one of these up-to-date, free and excellent browsers: For more security, speed, comfort and thesis fun. We have detected you have disabled http cookies on your browser. Please note that it might affect overall website performance. Ellipsometry Thesis. The following part(s) of our website might not function properly with cookies disabled:
To use chat, please enable cookies or use phone or email to contact our support representatives.
Order Your Own Writing Help Now -
Situ ellipsometry of surfaces in an ultrahigh | 1 2 … pdf 46 Кб
Simerg Photos – Photos, Images and Videos from Around the World. Qayl’s Inspiring Encounters with Great Astronauts. Qayl Azeem Maherali pictured as an ellipsometry thesis astronaut when he was 6. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright . The picture above was taken three years ago. Resume. I am 9 years old now. I want to be an thesis astronaut and an international soccer player. I have been interested in space all my life – well if you asked my dad, he would say since I was 1-year-old. My interest in space has so far taken me to ellipsometry thesis, Kennedy Space Center – Florida (3 times), US Space Rocket Center – Alabama (4 times) and the Smithsonian National Air Space Museum – Washington, DC (2 times). I am negotiating with my dad for a trip to visit the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. I am really excited about it.
Exploring space, discovering and learning about what’s there and how to get there, is something that I am interested in. I wanted to write about ellipsometry thesis stuff that I had learned and that had interested me from paraplanner, all my trips to ellipsometry, NASA. I did not want to write a long essay, that is a lot of paraplanner, work. It had to thesis, be fun! I had to be creative! On my dad’s suggestion, I decided to do a photo essay with his help.
After all, the Chinese proverb “a picture is worth a thousand words” made a lot of sense. So here is my contribution that I hope all readers, young and old alike, will enjoy. By NASA definition, a Space Shuttle is descriptive on a made up of the Orbiter Vehicle (OV) – or Orbiter in short, + 2 Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) and an External Tank (ET). Sometime people use Space Shuttle and Orbiter interchangeably. But the correct way to refer to it is Orbiter – when the ellipsometry thesis, fuel tanks are not present; and Space Shuttle – when the 3 fuel tanks are connected to the Orbiter.
OV – Atlantis: Up close personal with my dada and how to a application letter dad. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright . What: See Space Shuttle Atlantis real close (maybe touch it) and hopefully meet some cool Astronauts. Where: Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Florida. When : Wednesday, October 31, 2012 to Sunday, November 04, 2012. Why : Tickle my curiosity: To explore and discover – see the things and ellipsometry thesis people who went to space. How : By car from Atlanta, Georgia, where I live, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Clinical Research Cover Letter. MapQuest said 8 hours and 2 minutes, but my dad got us there much much faster. Astronaut Edwin Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin, Jr. Shaking hands with Astronaut Buzz Aldrin. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright.
Edwin Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin, Jr is an American Astronaut, and ellipsometry thesis the second person to walk on the Moon. He was the lunar module pilot on Apollo 11, the on a, first manned lunar landing in history. On July 21, 1969, he set foot on the Moon, following mission commander Neil Armstrong. It was a huge honor meeting Buzz Aldrin, the second person to walk on the Moon. He could have been the first person on the moon if he was sitting next to the exit door of the lunar module. Ellipsometry. That way, he could have been the first person to get out of the lunar module and the first one to set foot on ellipsometry thesis, the moon.
Anyway, he really thinks we should try to go to Mars. He said he hoped and ellipsometry thesis wanted to ellipsometry, go to Mars, but doesn’t think that it will happen in thesis, his lifetime. He wants kids my age to make it happen – he says kids today are really smart and they will succeed if we keep working hard and dream big! I liked what he said. After the handshake, talking about space travel to the Moon and Mars. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright.
1. Essays Canada War. The nickname “Buzz” originated when he was a kid. One of his elder sisters mispronounced “brother” as “buzzer”, and ellipsometry thesis the name shortened to buzz stuck. How To For Nursing. Aldrin made it his legal first name in 1988. 2. Ellipsometry Thesis. In one of his interviews, Buzz said: “We should go boldly where man has not gone before. Fly by the comets, visit asteroids, visit the moon of paraplanner resume, Mars.” It’s one of my favorite quotes! My dad keeps saying that this quote sounds familiar from some TV show. With Astronaut Cernan – the person to have stayed on the Moon the ellipsometry, longest. Ellipsometry. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Eugene Andrew Cernan is also an ellipsometry American Astronaut. Global Research Thesis. He has been to space three times: as pilot of Gemini 9A in thesis, June 1966; as lunar module pilot of Apollo 10 in resume, May 1969; and as commander of Apollo 17 in December 1972, the final Apollo lunar landing. I was excited beyond my imagination to ellipsometry, meet the clinical research cover, second Apollo Astronaut.
What are the chances. … I met one of the first people to walk on the moon and I met one of the thesis, last people to walk on the moon. First one and last one … how amazing. Cernan holds the global research paper thesis statement, record for being on ellipsometry thesis, the moon for the longest duration. 3 days (74 hours 59 minutes 40 seconds, to be precise). How thrilling it would be to go to the moon for how to a application letter for nursing the weekend!
1. Cernan is thesis one of only three people to travel to a application letter for nursing college, the Moon on ellipsometry, two different occasions (the others being Jim Lovell and canada cold John Young –- I hope to meet them in person someday). 2. Cernan is ellipsometry thesis also one of only twelve people (I also hope to descriptive on a celebration, meet them in thesis, person someday) to walk on the Moon and the only person to descriptive on a, have descended toward the Moon in ellipsometry thesis, the lunar lander twice (the first was Apollo 10’s non-landing mission). Listening to Astronaut Kerwin talk about RED. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Joseph Peter Kerwin is an American physician and ellipsometry an Astronaut who served as science pilot for ellipsometry the Skylab 2 mission from May 25–June 22, 1973.
Skylab was a space station launched and operated by NASA and was the United States’ first space station. Cold War. Skylab orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, and included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems. My meeting was really cool, because I thought I would only meet rocket people (test pilots and people like them, you know …). But this time, I met one of the first doctors in space! We talked about RED – no, no, not the ellipsometry thesis, color red … but Resistance Exercise Devise (RED). Dr. War. Kerwin developed this machine so that astronauts can continue to exercise in space (and stay fit) – which is important because in space with no gravity, our bodies lose bone density and muscle mass. Thesis. Losing muscle mass is thesis not good, especially for the heart.
On the bright side, with no gravity or just microgravity (as in International Space Station or ISS) you can lift almost any weight – and pretend you are Superman! 1. Dr. Kerwin was the first physician to be selected for astronaut training. 2. There is an award named after him – Joseph P. Kerwin, M.D. Award. It honors the advancement of ellipsometry, medicine in space. Meeting Astronaut Weitz. Celebration. Also, with Astronaut Kerwin in ellipsometry thesis, the background.
Conrad-Kerwin-Weitz and the land based NASA team saved the descriptive essay wedding, unmanned Skylab 1 mission. Ellipsometry. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Paul Joseph Weitz an American Astronaut, who flew into space twice. He was a member of the three-man crew who flew on thesis statement, Skylab 2, the first manned Skylab mission, a 28-day duration. Thesis. He was also commander of the STS-6 mission, the clinical cancer research cover letter, first of the Space Shuttle Challenger flights – the maiden voyage of the orbiter Challenger. Ellipsometry Thesis. Sadly, Challenger was lost in an accident shortly after a minute during its launch in 1986. Weitz told me about the importance of the Skylab mission – to ellipsometry, learn how to live and work in space for long durations. Ellipsometry Thesis. This was before ISS.
Skylab was man’s home in space, like MIR (curious to paraplanner resume, know what it is … wait for the details in the next astronaut encounter). I like the name Skylab – it makes sense, a lab for doing scientific experiments in the sky. 1. Ellipsometry. Weitz may have also been assigned as the paraplanner, command module pilot for ellipsometry thesis the cancelled Apollo 20. 2. Weitz and his two crewmates performed extensive and ellipsometry thesis unprecedented repairs to serious damage the unmanned Skylab sustained during its launch, salvaging the ellipsometry thesis, entire Skylab mission. Astronaut Blaha learned Russian to be able to work with Russian Cosmonauts and college work live on MIR.
Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. John Elmer Blaha is also an thesis American Astronaut. He is a veteran of six Space Shuttle missions (Discovery (2), Atlantis (3), and clinical research cover Columbia) and a stay on the Mir space station. Thesis. Sadly, in thesis, 2003 Columbia was lost in an accident when it re-entered the earth’s atmosphere. I am finding out that Astronauts are so cool and ellipsometry very nice people – they are heroes! Astronaut Blaha was really generous to share some of his emails that he had sent to his wife while he was up in Mir. I was totally surprised when he emailed me the emails that he had promised to send me.
What was incredible about him besides flying on ellipsometry, the space shuttle 6 times was that he was selected to go to Mi r – the Russian Space Station. Thesis. He had to war, learn Russian quickly and be able to ellipsometry, speak, read and write it so that he could work on Mi r and communicate with his fellow Russian Cosmonauts (in Russia they don’t call them Astronauts, they call them Cosmonauts – I think that sounds very astronomy like). 1. Mir means peace or world in Russian – what a nice name. Resume. It was a space station that operated in thesis, low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. Ellipsometry. It held the record for the largest artificial satellite orbiting the thesis, Earth until that record was surpassed by the International Space Station (ISS) after Mir’s deorbit on how to write a application letter college, 21 March 2001 – hey, that’s on thesis, Navroz day – the Persian New Year! 2. Blaha was not permitted to vote in the November 1996 election, because his mission on Mir began before ballots were finalized and lasted beyond Election Day.
In response to his predicament, Texas in 1997 amended its election statutes to permit voting from outer space. Astronaut Robert Clyde “Bob” Springer. With Astronaut Springer. Essay Wedding Celebration. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Robert Clyde “Bob” Springer is a retired American test pilot and an American Astronaut. He is a veteran of two Space Shuttle missions, on Discovery and Atlantis – that’s my and my dad’s favorite orbiters, respectively. He has also flown with Astronaut Blaha – how do I know?
Look at ellipsometry thesis, the Mission Patch, in the picture above – it has all their names on it. I was fascinated with Astronaut Springer’s description of essay on a wedding, his space shuttle lift off experience, the ellipsometry, first 9-10 minutes. I was impressed to learn that within 8.5 minutes after liftoff you were in space and global paper thesis statement flying 26 times the ellipsometry, speed of a application letter for nursing college, sound (Mach 26). Now that’s fast!. Ellipsometry. I also know that you need a lot of speed and power to break free from the earth’s gravitational force … you need an escape velocity of 25,000 miles an hour – Now that’s what I call blazing fast! That means during lift off, the space shuttle is taking off at 34 times the speed of sound (Mach 34). Astronaut Springer telling me how fast the Space Shuttle goes.
Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. 1. On the paraplanner resume, first mission, Springer’s team took more than 4,000 photographs of the Earth using special cameras, including the thesis, IMAX 70mm movie camera. I bet you these must be the research cover, images we see in IMAX space movies. 2. Springer’s other mission was classified. Ellipsometry. I tried asking him about it but he wouldn’t talk about it – I think he is how to a application college really good at ellipsometry, keeping secrets! With Astronaut Mark Lee: Nice badge, sir …. when I was 1. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. … Enthusiasm from age 1, but not so quick, kid!
Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Mark Charles Lee is warming thesis statement also an American Astronaut who flew on thesis, four Space Shuttle missions. Mark Lee is the first Astronaut that I met when I had just turned 1 (see the two photos above). So I was thrilled to meet him again after eight years. Now, meeting him the letter for nursing college, second time, I was so excited that I forgot to really talk to him about space. Ellipsometry. Perhaps I won’t be forgetful during my next or third encounter with him. … 8 years later. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. 1. Lee’s mission involved the launch of the Magellan probe, a Venus-exploration spacecraft.
2. Lee also has a unique distinction with the second flight: his wife (at that time, N. Jan Davis, a mission specialist), for being the first married couple to be in space at the same time. They had kept this a secret from NASA. Descriptive. The space agency has since changed the rules and will not allow married astronauts on the same flight. Astronaut and Scientist Kathryn Ryan Cordell Thornton. Looking for Astronaut Thornton mission summaries in my NASA hand book.
Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Kathryn Ryan Cordell Thornton (Ph.D.) is an American scientist and ellipsometry thesis an American Astronaut with over 975 hours in space, including 21 hours of extravehicular activity (EVA = spacewalk). She has flown 4 times in space – Discovery, Endeavor (2), Columbia. Astronaut Kathryn Thornton was on Endeavour’s first flight (maiden flight)! Endeavour is resume my little brother Riyaan’s favorite Orbiter. Thesis. She was so kind and essays canada generous to ellipsometry, give me a sign, that said: “Back in essays cold war, a while, gone space walking.” I have hung it outside my bedroom door. I also talked to her about how food tastes differently in space. I learned that it has to do with microgravity and how it affects our taste-buds. Interestingly, your favorite things to eat on earth may not be your favorite things to eat in space because they taste gross.
I asked her what was the most popular thing that Astronauts liked to eat in space? The answer was shrimp cocktail – apparently, that’s also very popular with the ellipsometry thesis, Astronauts on earth. Next time, my mom tries to convince me to eat vegetables, I am going to clinical cancer research, tell her that she will have better chances of success if she sends me to space – where the thesis, things I don’t like on earth will taste better! Talking to her about how earth food tastes different in space. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. 1. Dr. Thornton was a mission specialist EVA crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on the STS-61 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing and repair mission. 2. STS-61 launched at night from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on essays canada cold, December 2, 1993. Ellipsometry Thesis. During the 11-day flight, the HST was captured and restored to full capacity through a record five space walks by four astronauts, including Dr. Thornton. Then, after Expedition 14, Sunita Williams surpassed her for woman with the most spacewalks.
I hope to meet Astronaut Williams when I go to Houston, Texas. Astronaut Marcos Cesar Pontes of Brazil. A surprise meeting with the one and only Brazilian Astronaut, Astronaut Pontes. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Marcos Cesar Pontes is a Brazilian Air Force pilot and a Brazilian Astronaut. Ellipsometry. He went to the International Space Station aboard Soyuz TMA-8 rocket. I was only expecting to meet American Astronauts, so I was pleasantly surprised to meet a Brazilian Astronaut.
It was cool to learn that he not only completed NASA astronaut training but also completed the Roscosmos training (Russian equivalent of NASA). Although he did not get to fly aboard the Space Shuttle (after NASA put brakes on ellipsometry thesis, the Space Shuttle program following the Columbia disaster), he still made it to the ISS via the Russian Soyuz Rocket. Now that is epic! 1. Pontes is one of the most experienced jet pilots in essays, the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) and has flown for more than 2000 hours in 25 different aircrafts. 2. Ellipsometry. On March 30, 2006, Pontes became the first Brazilian and the first native Portuguese-speaking (Lusophone) person to clinical research cover letter, go into space, where he stayed on the International Space Station for a week. NASA Launch Director Robert B. Thesis. Sieck. Meeting Robert B. Sieck – NASA Launch Director and Director of Shuttle Processing. Ellipsometry Thesis. Photo: Qayl’s Collection © Copyright. Robert B. Sieck is Director of Shuttle Processing at the John F. Ellipsometry Thesis. Kennedy Space Center.
In this capacity, he is responsible for the management of all space shuttle processing and launch activities at the Kennedy Space Center. As director, Mr. Paper Statement. Sieck has worked with over 700 astronauts; first during the Gemini Program, then the Apollo and ellipsometry thesis Skylab Missions and finally the Shuttle Program. He had really interesting stories to essays canada cold, tell and I spent time talking to him the most. 1. Sieck served as Launch Director for 52 Space Shuttle launches.
2. Sieck’s long career at thesis, NASA gave him the opportunity to work in the various programs such as Gemini (Mission to practice space rendezvous and EVAs), Apollo (Mission to the Moon), Skylab (learning to live and work in space) and Space Shuttle (Mission using reusable spacecraft, building the ISS and living and descriptive wedding working in space for long durations). This photo essay was a fun project – I learned a lot doing it. It took me a long time to do it. Can you imagine if I had done a written essay? It would have taken me even longer. I learned about planning and how to ellipsometry, organize ideas.
I am glad my dad helped me with it. I hope you have enjoyed reading about my interest in space. Date posted: Saturday, June 29, 2013. Copyright: Qayl A. Maherali. 2013. Are you a student? Do you have an interesting and educational photo essay about a project you have carried out? Please submit it for publication to research paper, Simerg@aol.com.
Profile of Qayl Maherali at Contributors. For a complete list as well as links to photo essays published on this blog please click on Table of Contents or visit the Home Page. We welcome feedback/letters from our readers. Please use the LEAVE A REPLY box which appears below or send your letter to email@example.com . Ellipsometry Thesis. Your feedback may be edited for length and brevity, and celebration is subject to moderation. Thesis. We are unable to acknowledge unpublished letters. Please also visit the literary website www.simerg.com. 156 thoughts on “ Photo Essay: A 9 Year Old Ismaili Boy’s First Steps of research statement, Becoming an Astronaut ” Great work little champ …….I m sure one day u will become an astronaut… Best of ellipsometry thesis, luck.
Wow so interesting. Good luck boy #128578; ??(Qayl in Korean), ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????. ???? ??? ??? ? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??. Oi tr?i oi, em la m?t ngu?i dan ong tr? r?t la tai nang! Toi th?c s? r?t thich d?c bai lu?n c?a em va toi r?t ?n tu?ng v?i b?n mong mu?n du?c m?t phi hanh gia khi l?n len. Ti?p t?c theo du?i gi?c mo c?a em va khong b? cu?c! #128578; Oh my goodness, you are a very talented young man!
I really enjoyed reading your essay and I am very impress with you wanting to be an astronaut when you grow up. Continue to follow your dream and write a application don’t give up! #128578; Fantastic work, Qayl. That’s really impressive. Best wishes for ellipsometry your bright future career! #128578; Japanese: Qayl ?????????????????????!?????????????????????! Satoka from Tokyo, Japan. This is clinical research letter Qayl, and I think that’s a great idea. Correction, an amazing idea!
Your photo essay is Sooooooo interesting. My my son even stayed up late at night to read it. Also, you could write a book on thesis, astronauts and it would be A BESTSELLER:-) Wow Qayl you have a lot of drive and will be a leader one day just like his Dad! I enjoyed reading about your trip and looking at the pictures. Letter. It brought back memories for me. Thesis. Great Job! Thank you very much. The essay and photos are impressive.Keep on going on this way!Hope,we’ll see this young boy as the best astronaut of the world in the future : ) Good luck!
Tebrikler Basarilar : ) Burcu from Istanbul-Turkey. Abhinandan Qayl..Tu parents nu abhiman che.. Asha rakhu ke to letter, jivan ma khub agal vadhe and taru sapnu ASTRONAUT banvanu sakar thai. Good Job Qayl. Ellipsometry Thesis. You are proud of your parents. I am wishing good luck and thesis your dream will come true for ellipsometry sure. Tienes un sueno muy inspirador que se que con el tiempo y si pones en el toda tu dedicacion y esfuerzo se hara realidad algun dia, nunca renuncies a el, de la cultura de donde provengo, Los Mayas, siempre tuvieron una vision del universo y estudiaron las estrellas y anhelaron con llegar algun dia a ellas, tu tienes la capacidad de lograrlo, espero sigas echandole todas las ganas para que yo pueda decir algun dia que tengo un amigo astronauta llamado Qayl. ?Saludos Campeon! You have a very inspiring dream and I’m pretty sure in time if you put all your effort and dedication it will come true, never quit because what you are doing is ellipsometry thesis great. I’m coming from the Mayan Culture and ellipsometry they always had a vision for canada war the universe and started to study the stars and all the astrological phenomenons, they thought to reach the stars one day but hey you now have the capability to make it, I hope you keep on this path and put all your courage so one day I can say: hey I have an astronaut friend and his name is Qayl, Regards Champ! Qayl, mis mejores deseos en tu futura carrera como Astronauta, solo necesitas continuar siguiendo tus suenos y pasiones tal como lo estas haciendo ahora.
Suena en volar alto que pronto lo estaras haciendo abordo de ese O.V. =) Qayl, my best wishes in your future Astronaut career, you just need to keep following your dreams and passions as you are doing it now. Dream to fly high that you will be doing it soon on board of that O.V. Ellipsometry Thesis. =) Federico Carrera – AGUASCALIENTES / MEXICO. Very informative, well written, funny and inspiring; by the end, I wanted to paraplanner resume, be an Astronaut!
I see your Dad’s roots through and thesis through with the essay wedding celebration, humorous comments, positive outlook and that famous phrase which your Dad shares, “A picture is thesis worth a thousand words.” I look forward to seeing your name synonymous with the first mission to thesis, Mars! ???????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? #128578; Bagus, Qayl! Sebuah gambar memang jauh lebih bermakna dari ribuan kata. Ellipsometry Thesis. Sangat menginspirasi saya untuk melihat bocah 9 tahun yang tahu apa yang ingin Ia capai dan berusaha untuk menggapai impian sejak sangat dini.
Keep doing your good work and best of luck! You go boy! Valesca – Jakarta, Indonesia. Well done Qayl! I imagine you have ambitions to be an descriptive wedding celebration astronaut; I wish your wish comes true, and you go places! Qayl Azeem Maherali this is outstanding. You really have a passion and ellipsometry desire for thesis Space and Astronauts.
Just think one day you can look back at your work here and show a young man (9 years) like you the work you have done and how you become a great Astronaut yourself. Be blessed and stay focus. Hi Qayl. It’s very inspiring to see your dream and ellipsometry all the lovely photos. I am positive it’s going to come true, sooner or later. Study hard and keep working towards your dream and NEVER give you. I will be checking up on your adventures very closely on this blog. All the best.
Great job. Keep striving towards your passions and letter for nursing college goals in life!! Qayl this is very impressive! I can’t wait for the girls to get home so I can tell them about your great accomplishments. I have to thesis, tell you, you are an inspiration to us all! Keep up the exploratory work so one day we can see and hear about you going to the moon or to Mars!
Great report. I really enjoyed reading the fun facts. Very impressive work!! Very informative and also a fun interesting read. Oi Qayl, e fantastico que voce quer ser um astronauta . War. Continua atras do seu sonho porque voce tem toda uma vida pela frente! Sei que Deus esta com voce. What a great project! Your photo essay is ellipsometry thesis very thorough, organized and interesting. Your knowledge of the subject really shows and your enthusiam is incredible!! Great work and essays canada war keep it up!
You’ll do great things. Qayl, ini merupakan satu pengalaman yang luar biasa dan pencapaian yang canggih. Ini adalah satu pengalaman yang indah dalam hidup anda pada usia anda ini di mana anda harus menikmati dan meneroka dengan lebih gigih! Syabas dan semua yang terbaik untuk anda. Translate to English: Qayl, this is an amazing experience and cutting-edge performance. This is a wonderful experience of thesis, your life at your age where you should enjoy and canada cold explore even harder! Well done and all the best to you. – Regards from Malaysia. , ! ! Great essay, Qail! Good luck from Russia!
Super Aufsatz Qayl! Sehr interessant. Thesis. Wenn du hart arbeitest kannst du alles erreichen! Liebe Gru?e aus Deutschland! What a great project – well done! All the best for the future! Believe in yourself and keep dreaming! #128578; All the best to you.
So young but yet such big dreams and descriptive on a wedding celebration aspirations! You are an inspiration to everyone. Keep up the curiosity and thesis great work! ??! What an amazing photo essay Qayl! It is great to canada war, see someone with so much passion and enthusiasm in space travel – I can’t wait to see further updates, and have no doubt you will be rocketing out of the atmosphere into ellipsometry thesis, space in just a few years #128578; Don’t ever give up on paraplanner resume, your dreams! This is an ellipsometry impressive photo essay, and I can tell you have a real passion for the subject.
Space science is incredible, as so much is still being discovered. I hope you’re part of the next generation of explorers to further develop our understanding of the universe. Great job! You have touched many lives with your hard work determination and essays canada cold war dedication! Keep it up:) What an elaborate photo essay. Ellipsometry Thesis. A very enthusiastic young boy. Your future looks bright…. Jut continue to follow your dreams. HI there Qayl, Very nice work. Reach for the stars and research you will succeed.
Keep up the good work on your research and ellipsometry find your star. Querido Qayl Maherali, No sabes lo orgullosa y contenta que me siento que hayas escogido este rumbo en tu vida. Desde nina siempre sone ser un astronaut pero desafortunadamente no habia los medios y oportunidades en mi pais para lograrlo. Pero viendote a ti realizando este sueno desde muy joven me llena de alegria, emocion y una felicidad enorme que tu lo vas a lograr. y es como si yo lo vaya a lograr tambiem por medio tuyo….. Descriptive Essay Wedding Celebration. Dios te bendiga hoy y siempre y espero que en un futuro tu seas mi capitan cuando me lleves a un viaje a MArte #128578; Keep up NEVER EVER give up. #128578; from: Liliana Bogota – Colombia. Dear Qayl Maherali, you do not have any idea how proud and happy I am that you have chosen this path in ellipsometry, life. My dream since a was a little girl was being an astronaut…. but unfortunately I did not have the tools and opportunities in global research paper, my country to do so. But seeing you making this dream at you very early age fills my heart with joy, excitement and a great happiness… you are going to make it! and if you do I will too through you …..
God bless you today and always and I hope in future if I buy a ticket for a tour in the space you will be my captain #128578; Keep it up NEVER EVER give up, AND ALWAYS FOLLOW YOUR DREAMS!! #128578; From: Liliana Bogota – Colombia. One small step for ellipsometry thesis Qayl, a giant leap for descriptive on a tomorrows youth. Ellipsometry. All the best !! You may have small, cute eyes, but your Vision is immensely inspiring! Good Luck!! Qayl, Good luck, and always reach for the stars.
Literally and metaphorically. You can do anything you put your mind too. Always remember that and you will be the best Astronaut in the future. Fredo. I have had the pleasure of meeting Qayl this evening. Instantly I could see that this child had potential and that he IS a dream chaser. Cancer Cover Letter. I informed him that “the next time that I see him, he BETTER be an astronaut.” He smiled and respectively said “Yes, ma’am”. I am 100% for children gettting an ellipsometry education and if me writing a comment helps in any way…then by resume golly miss molly, I am doing it.
Good Luck Qayl. Best of wishes. Brittany. Qayl, I pray for your success inshallah your dream becomes a reality.With love. Dilshad Jaffer, London. Qayl keep dreaming inshallah your dream will become a reality one day.All the best for thesis your success in future.With love.
Qayl, wewe ni mwanafunzi hodari sana na lazima utasafiri mbinguni, mwezi na nyota za mbali. Lakini usisahau kwamba hi ulimwengu ni viumbe ya Mungu mmoja. Research Paper. Safari ya anga salama. You are very bright student, Qayl. Certainly you will travel the skies, to the moon and to the farthest stars. However, do not forget that this universe is the creation of the one and only God. Travel the heavens safely. Wow!
What an impressive photo essay! Your future looks bright as either an Astronaut or a Photo Journalist. Thesis. Excellent work! Qayl, to have such mature aspirations and goals at such a young age is how to write a application absolutely AWESOME. One day, your space journeys will make headline news.
Hey Qayl! you have done a great job just in 9 years. i am sure one day you will become popular/famous by ellipsometry achieving your goal of becoming the how to letter for nursing, super Astronaut :). small boy with vast brain amazing yeah … keep it up …with love. Way to go Qayl!! You are by far the youngest aspiring astronaut I know. All the best to ellipsometry thesis, you. Thesis. As my kids grow I’ll have them hang out with you to learn from you!! #128578; (Origin – Karachi, Pakistan) Shah baash (good work)!
You make your parents really proud! Follow your dreams and Inshahallah (if god wills) you will get success. Dream BIG…and aim for the SKY…and then you will be an ellipsometry thesis ASTRONAUT. Wishing you all the best. Reve GRAND … et but pour le ciel … et alors vous serez un astronaute.
Je vous souhaite tout le meilleur.
Write My Paper -
Ellipsometry - Wikipedia
45,000 caught cheating at Britain#039;s universities. As cases of 'academic misconduct' rocket, computer programs able to identify plagiarism are being overtaken fast. Ellipsometry! The Independent Online. Using a mobile phone is one way to paraplanner resume pass your exams, but notes on thesis, the arm will do Jason Alden. Tens of thousands of paraplanner resume, students in universities across Britain have been caught cheating in exams and coursework – and the trend is on the rise, according to a investigation by The Independent on thesis, Sunday . Over the essay on a, past three years, more than 45,000 students at ellipsometry, 80 institutions have been hauled before college authorities and found guilty of canada war, academic misconduct ranging from bringing crib-sheets or mobile phones into ellipsometry thesis exams to essay on a wedding celebration paying private firms to ellipsometry write essays for them. Some 16,000 cases were recorded in the past year alone, as university chiefs spent millions on software to identify work reproduced from global warming research published material, or simply cut and pasted from the internet. But officials last night warned they were fighting a losing battle against hi-tech advances – which means it is ellipsometry becoming increasingly difficult to detect the cheats. Tessa Byars, an advice services manager at global warming statement, Anglia Ruskin University Students' Union, warned that advances in technology had made it nearly impossible for universities to keep up. It's only going to get worse, she said. From next September we expect to see cheating incidents rise. The introduction of tuition fees will increase pressure and anxiety to get a good degree.
They're all worried about their employment prospects. University bosses blame the financial crisis for raising the stakes in higher education, making many students willing to do anything to secure good grades – or just to stay on their degree courses. A number of experts claim that Tony Blair's flagship policy of thesis, increasing access to higher education has left thousands of young people starting university without all the practical and intellectual skills required. Ministers have now been urged to step in to help institutions defend standards against increasingly sophisticated methods, particularly agencies that produce customised essays for students – often for fees of hundreds of pounds. The Liberal Democrat peer Lord Willis, who led an inquiry into thesis the state of Britain's universities three years ago, said ministers must gain control over the essay-writing companies whose products are almost impossible to detect.
The former headteacher said ministers should impose a register of ellipsometry, all companies offering professional advice on writing essays. Lord Willis said: We were disappointed that the last government ignored our recommendations on making these firms liable for criminal prosecution. Something needs to be done to bring them into line. Under the Freedom of Information Act, The IoS obtained answers from more than 80 institutions. The responses revealed a catalogue of offences, including individuals caught taking exams for ellipsometry thesis someone else, using concealed notes or taking mobile phones into ellipsometry thesis examination halls and colluding with fellow students to produce identical coursework. Hundreds were kicked off their courses, while many more have been fined, had their marks downgraded, or been sent for counselling. The Oxford University Proctors' Office report listed 26 cases last year, including two students who were expelled for offences including plagiarism and further fines on two students who took mobile phones or BlackBerrys into exams. The IoS has established that at least 45,000 students at resume, more than 80 UK institutions have been hauled before the authorities and found guilty of ellipsometry, misconduct in their exams or coursework over the past three years. Global Warming Paper Statement! The toll last year was almost 16,000, an increase on ellipsometry, two years before, despite attempts to persuade undergraduates to how to write college stay on the straight and narrow. Greenwich University, with more than 900 cases, was the ellipsometry, worst in the country, but 12 others reported more than one cheat every day. The high rate of cheating has also been blamed in essay celebration part on ellipsometry thesis, the tens of ellipsometry thesis, thousands of international students who, Ms Byars said, come from countries with different practices and cultures.
Others said the ellipsometry, recent huge increase in undergraduates meant there were many students at new universities who were not adequately prepared to complete degrees. Geoffrey Alderman, professor of history and politics at the University of Buckingham, said the cheats had moved on from Type 1 fraud – mainly cutting and pasting material from the internet – as that could now be detected easily. Professor Alderman, who has complained about a decline in university standards, added: If a student who I know to be mediocre in class suddenly produces a brilliant essay, I will have them in for an oral examination to see whether they can reproduce that work. I'm not sure all universities do that. I will not allow a student's nationality or ethnic background to excuse cheating. The Government should use the essay on a celebration, criminal law to stop this happening – it's fraud and ellipsometry it devalues the warming research statement, currency of all degrees. Sally Hunt, general secretary of the University and College Union, said politicians had to share the blame for thesis the rising tide of cancer research letter, cheating. She said: Cheating is wrong, and students need to understand that and thesis the consequences that come with it if they are tempted to explore unscrupulous ways of completing their work. However, successive governments are also partly to blame. Hawking degrees around like any other commodity, using graduate-earning premiums as a selling point, has changed the nature of descriptive essay on a, life on campus.
London Metropolitan, which had the highest number of cheating offences in the country in 2009-10, recorded the second-highest last year, behind Greenwich. They were followed by Sheffield Hallam, Leeds Metropolitan and Wolverhampton. A spokeswoman for Greenwich University said the figures demonstrated a particularly robust approach to thesis academic misconduct. She added: Staff are highly vigilant, and descriptive wedding we use a number of techniques that are not in use throughout the whole sector. Increasingly, universities are taking a defensive stance – insisting it is ellipsometry thesis complicated by a growing number of students who enter university unfamiliar with the correct procedures of paraplanner, citation or who do not have a good command of English. Niall Hayes, a lecturer at Lancaster University Management School, said: People come to us without experience of extended writing or formulating arguments and building on other's ideas. Ellipsometry! That's something we have to deal with and cold war it's why we can't necessarily identify it as cheating. Jon Elsmore, dean of students at ellipsometry, Wolverhampton, said: Sometimes plagiarism can occur unintentionally, and if problems are identified early in a student's career they can be helped to develop their academic skills and avoid more serious consequences if they do not change their approach.
There are hundreds of internet sites offering everything from presentations, short-form essays and even a PhD thesis written to order. Some are based in the UK while many exist only online. Posing as a student with an urgent deadline, we used a company called All Writing Source purporting to write college be based in Surrey. Essays can be ordered using a drop-down menu, with prices determined by length, time of ellipsometry thesis, delivery and desired mark. We stipulated a Guaranteed First Class Degree (sic) at 1,500 words and delivered by e-mail within 24 hours.
The title we set was: Did Tony Blair lie in making the case for military action in Iraq? The total cost came in at ?143.70. The sales assistant, Kevin, refused any textbooks, insisting the firm would get in touch if they needed more information. The reason is that we have our own in-house writers who do the job for how to write college us. free from all plagiarisms, he wrote. He promised to deliver the essay in under 24 hours. The next day, 10 minutes before the deadline, we were told the essay was ready. The paper passed flawlessly through Turnitin, one of the leading plagiarism checkers, and had even cited seven sources in the bibliography.
But was it really the Guaranteed First Class that we were promised? We gave it to John Rentoul, a visiting fellow at Queen Mary, University of ellipsometry thesis, London, for marking. Professor Rentoul's verdict: Some evidence of how to write a application for nursing, knowledge of the ellipsometry, subject, but: 1. Very poor grammar and how to a application letter for nursing college style, unintelligible in ellipsometry thesis places (reads as if it has been translated by Google from another language); 2. Very poor sources and sourcing. All four books cited are polemical anti-war works. No primary material cited at cancer research, all; 3. Argument, analysis and ellipsometry narrative weak and unsupported by clinical cancer research, evidence. Much too polemical rather than historical in style. The question needs to be defined and then the evidence for and against needs to be cited and weighed. Please see me for further advice. Mark: 42 (Third Class marks: 40-49) We returned to the company the next day, explaining that we were from The Independent on Sunday . Ellipsometry! The firm denied it was encouraging cheating and offered to improve the research paper, essay based on ellipsometry, the examiner's comments. The company's website disclaimer reads: AllWritingSource.co.uk is paraplanner resume a custom research/writing/rewriting service that provides proper references too for assistance purposes only. It is necessary to use every paper with appropriate reference.
The papers provided serve as model papers for students and are not to be submitted as it is. These papers are intended to be used for ellipsometry research and reference purposes only. Ollie (surname withheld by The IoS), 22, studied at Glasgow Caledonian University. The computer science student was accused of cheating after a professor spotted similarities between his and a friend's work. It was the night before a programming assignment was due and I convinced someone on my course to let me see their coursework. I tried to change some details and I thought it would be enough. But when the marker looked over the code it was clear that the origins of both our work was similar. We were called in on separate occasions to explain the code outline, how it worked, in clinical cancer research cover order to try to work out which of us was cheating.
I thought I could get away with it, but it was clear that the work was alien to me. But it was also obvious that I had grasped the ellipsometry, theory, even though I hadn't done the work myself, so I think they were more lenient. The assessment was counted as a fail and I was made to resit the assignment. In the end, I took the blame. If anything, the experience has taught me not to attempt things I can't explain and never to use other people's coursework. Clare Trayner, 23, was a geography student at Royal Holloway who was accused of cheating after anti-plagiarism software flagged up her essay. Descriptive On A Wedding! Everyone was emailed to collect their essay, but mine was held back. I was then told to attend a formal meeting as I had been caught committing plagiarism. Thesis! I knew I hadn't cheated but I wasn't clear on essays cold war, what the problem was.
Click here to ellipsometry thesis view instructions on essay wedding celebration, how to disable your ad blocker, and help us to ellipsometry keep providing you with free-thinking journalism - for free.
Write My Research Paper -
Ellipsometry is an optical measurement technique that… pdf 3 Кб
computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for thesis, mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at how to letter college, Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in thesis, PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Ellipsometry! 76 pages, 25 photos. Thesis! The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at descriptive celebration, Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of ellipsometry thesis, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Paraplanner! Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at ellipsometry thesis, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the global research paper thesis time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the ellipsometry first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. Essay Wedding! So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Ellipsometry! I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and global warming research statement, I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Ellipsometry! Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the essays canada war Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of thesis, Network Planning for the University and chair of the essays University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.
I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to thesis be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to clinical cancer research cover extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at ellipsometry, Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and paraplanner, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of ellipsometry, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of ellipsometry thesis, Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of thesis, Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of ellipsometry thesis, San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by ellipsometry, Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of how to write for nursing college, Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and ellipsometry, Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and paraplanner, artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and thesis, materials, his autobiography, and paraplanner, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and thesis, contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in ellipsometry thesis, January 2010.
Herb remembered everything . And thanks to thesis the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and thesis, abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for ellipsometry thesis, announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to cancer research cover the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to ellipsometry thesis send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on ellipsometry a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the ellipsometry child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and canada cold, certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. Ellipsometry! How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here.
The story of computing at how to, Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by ellipsometry, King George II of warming thesis, England in 1754 in ellipsometry, downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to global warming paper statement 49th Street and Madison Avenue in ellipsometry thesis, 1857, and from there to its present site at resume, 116th Street and thesis, Broadway in resume, 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on ellipsometry as an statement assistant to ellipsometry thesis one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on global paper statement to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and ellipsometry thesis, the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Essay On A! Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by ellipsometry, other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an warming research thesis actual job title in those days, referring to thesis someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about ellipsometry this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on ellipsometry thesis page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in essays cold, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at ellipsometry, the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the essays canada cold war Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to ellipsometry 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan .
Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to cover letter market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on ellipsometry 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and paraplanner resume, sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the ellipsometry five computing machines . CLICK HERE for essays canada war, a gallery of late-1920s computing machines.
CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of ellipsometry, tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of descriptive on a celebration, Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in ellipsometry thesis, England, L.J. Paraplanner Resume! Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the thesis moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is thesis, probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation .
This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to ellipsometry thesis take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from essays canada war, astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the thesis New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to paraplanner resume build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and ellipsometry, delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in essays canada, their ability to thesis rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . Essay On A Wedding! The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and ellipsometry, Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Descriptive Essay On A Wedding Celebration! Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the ellipsometry Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages .
1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Warming Research Paper! Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to ellipsometry thesis IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of paper thesis statement, IBM's G.W. Baehne  and ellipsometry thesis, dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of clinical cancer research, Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to ellipsometry a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the paraplanner Direction of Dr.
Eckert). Ellipsometry Thesis! It was the first permanent IBM installation in war, the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by thesis, numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of paraplanner resume, this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to ellipsometry thesis write it down to clinical cancer research reenter it into the machine to ellipsometry do the next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for canada, each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and thesis, his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to descriptive essay wedding improve the efficiency of thesis, processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Essay On A Wedding Celebration! Wood is remembered at Columbia through the ellipsometry thesis Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to essays canada him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the ellipsometry Punched Card Method in Colleges and cancer research cover letter, Universities , edited by ellipsometry thesis, George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for canada cold, a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at ellipsometry, or very near the cancer research cover head of the class of Women Pioneers of ellipsometry thesis, Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and descriptive essay on a wedding celebration, other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for ellipsometry, a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. Write College! In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the ellipsometry thesis 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and resume, when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Ellipsometry Thesis! Much more about write letter Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of ellipsometry, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].
Grace Hopper, though by essay on a wedding, no means a Columbian, was present at thesis, the inaugural meeting of the Association for resume, Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in ellipsometry thesis, 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only how to letter for nursing initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at ellipsometry thesis, least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . Canada War! subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.
Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the ellipsometry thesis lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for a application for nursing, the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the ellipsometry thesis Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the global warming research paper Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at ellipsometry, St. Petersburg University in descriptive essay on a, Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and thesis, means of minerals exploring. Ellipsometry! His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of ellipsometry, Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated.
Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the on a USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in thesis, charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. Clinical Cancer Research Letter! In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of ellipsometry thesis, Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to how to write for nursing state that one of your eminent scientists, the ellipsometry thesis late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the paraplanner same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on thesis August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Paraplanner! Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the ellipsometry proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to essay on a have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for thesis, many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy?
We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the paraplanner War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the ellipsometry thesis annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the write for nursing work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Ellipsometry! Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is how to a application letter for nursing, also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of thesis, his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to descriptive essay on a develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.
The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and thesis, others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Essay Wedding Celebration! Within a few months this work would become the ellipsometry thesis Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. Descriptive Wedding! After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of ellipsometry thesis, Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Essay! Fermi's lab was in thesis, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.
I don't know to ellipsometry thesis what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . Thesis! A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Paraplanner Resume! Wu and Bill Havens (both of ellipsometry, whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on essays canada war the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on ellipsometry manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in clinical cancer cover letter, Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of ellipsometry, his time.
Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for essays cold, Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of ellipsometry, planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and cold war, [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to ellipsometry calculations to on a wedding simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Ellipsometry Thesis! Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the paraplanner resume adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only thesis difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'
May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in essays cold war, upper Manhattan) was the ellipsometry site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by global warming research thesis statement, NBC. (The first televised sports event in ellipsometry thesis, the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. Essays Cold War! These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and ellipsometry, synthesis, and descriptive on a wedding, the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on thesis account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at essay wedding celebration, Columbia University and elsewhere. . Thesis! The process of clinical cancer research cover letter, carrying out the integration of the ellipsometry thesis differential equations is explained in descriptive wedding celebration, detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at ellipsometry, Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the a application letter for nursing college US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by ellipsometry thesis, machine methods).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and paraplanner, trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. Thesis! The Bureau existed until 1951, but by cancer letter, 1948 most of its work had migrated to ellipsometry thesis Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cold cost, and ellipsometry thesis, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of ellipsometry, all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to ellipsometry allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is ellipsometry thesis, or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. Ellipsometry Thesis! In 1949 it would move to research cover letter 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the ellipsometry thesis other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of resume, Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the ellipsometry thesis Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].
From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per research month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for ellipsometry thesis, certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an cancer cover 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and ellipsometry thesis, a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at how to letter for nursing college, wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. Thesis! It printed out essays canada cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of ellipsometry, Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Clinical Cover! As for thesis, computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in paraplanner, IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly.
I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of ellipsometry thesis, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and clinical cancer cover, EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of ellipsometry, Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the thesis reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the ellipsometry Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on warming research a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the ellipsometry thesis IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to cover mainframe applications like SAS and thesis, SPSS.
The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to cold war establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the ellipsometry thesis Air Almanac in essays cold war, what is arguably the first instance of ellipsometry, computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by global warming research statement, Professor Eckert in ellipsometry, 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to essays cold the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at ellipsometry, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Global Thesis! The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Thesis! Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of descriptive wedding, applied mathematics and ellipsometry, mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the resume laboratory. Temporarily housed on ellipsometry the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and how to write a application letter college, other fields. Ellipsometry! The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. Canada Cold War! The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out thesis that the presence of global warming paper thesis statement, Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at thesis, Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Essays Canada! Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to thesis IBM for help. Essays Canada Cold War! Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Thesis! thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is global warming statement, heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and ellipsometry, really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Canada Cold! It has only ellipsometry thesis two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move.
New space was needed, and found, for a application letter, Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at thesis, Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and resume, much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at ellipsometry, Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. Descriptive On A Wedding! He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at ellipsometry, the University of essay wedding celebration, Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to ellipsometry thesis Oak Ridge and celebration, Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the thesis first one (July 3rd) included the following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to canada cold war resist for thesis, long the paraplanner resume temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only ellipsometry thesis a few years ago when applied by ellipsometry, the Germans to ellipsometry the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.
Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in clinical cancer, the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and ellipsometry, demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to canada war consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Ellipsometry! Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and paraplanner resume, Grosch, the ellipsometry thesis only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for how to a application college, a bomb . Ellipsometry Thesis! In any event, the a application letter college petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.
It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and ellipsometry thesis, then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in descriptive essay on a wedding, Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in ellipsometry thesis, his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an paraplanner resume atomic bomb on ellipsometry Japan. Cancer Cover Letter! I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . Ellipsometry! . . Write College! But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and ellipsometry, of the plan for using it, asked for ellipsometry thesis, my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the thesis bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.”
FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and ellipsometry, of the Combined US and ellipsometry, British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the descriptive essay on a wedding use of ellipsometry, this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and essay wedding celebration, ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Thesis! The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to clinical cancer research cover obtain machine-readable tables of ellipsometry thesis, mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of write letter for nursing college, such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into ellipsometry thesis 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.
Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the ellipsometry thesis Grosch book. Ellipsometry Thesis! This building is cold war, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on thesis the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. Cover Letter! When did it close?
Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in ellipsometry, 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.
Scientific interest can be of resume, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on ellipsometry the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is descriptive essay wedding, not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to ellipsometry thesis the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of ellipsometry, control panel and ellipsometry thesis, master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.
This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for thesis, the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is ellipsometry thesis, a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in global warming research paper thesis statement, these early days) documents the thesis program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on thesis different data sets. Much of thesis, this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to cancer research recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Thesis! (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of warming research paper thesis, each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on ellipsometry thesis the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the descriptive essay wedding celebration world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the ellipsometry thesis first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in cancer, the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of ellipsometry, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.
The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of clinical research cover letter, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Ellipsometry Thesis! Thomas). Global Paper! Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. Thesis! 1948, the founder of descriptive wedding, computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.
1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the ellipsometry thesis US National Academy of canada, Sciences and ellipsometry, Chairman of the National Research Council. More about global warming research thesis these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.
This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to ellipsometry use the thesis Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for ellipsometry, astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of global thesis statement, high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to ellipsometry be told, including the clinical cancer research many and varied connection methods to thesis Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at write a application for nursing, a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at ellipsometry, Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Essay! The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to thesis apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the ellipsometry thesis transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the thesis direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in global warming research thesis statement, January 1948.
This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of thesis, operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). A Application Letter! Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and ellipsometry thesis, was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and ellipsometry thesis, configuration established the public image of computers for ellipsometry, decades to come (as in thesis, this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from ellipsometry thesis, solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the paraplanner world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and thesis, analogies with the canada cold human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in ellipsometry thesis, the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the essays canada application of excessively large voltages .
The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the thesis first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the warming research paper thesis second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the ellipsometry assembler. Essay! Such notions were not without controversy.
John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for ellipsometry thesis, their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at resume, Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for ellipsometry thesis, auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. How To Write For Nursing! When it was finally announced in thesis, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the essays canada cold first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by ellipsometry, Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of global warming, what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the thesis square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in write a application for nursing college, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for ellipsometry, a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Thesis! Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the thesis smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the global paper thesis number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. Ellipsometry! It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. Warming Paper Thesis! It is an ellipsometry excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia.
These were all part of the essays canada regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and thesis, position determination, and orbit computing), and resume, brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for ellipsometry, astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . How To Write Letter For Nursing! Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and ellipsometry, matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of essays canada war, machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Ellipsometry Thesis! . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and clinical cancer research letter, women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the ellipsometry thesis NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by thesis, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and thesis, renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and canada, relocated to thesis it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).
The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in cancer research cover, Watson Lab kept on ticking until about ellipsometry 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the descriptive favorite place for ellipsometry thesis, people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for clinical cancer, PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for thesis, young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in paraplanner, 1953 to ellipsometry create Watson Laboratory. According to letter college a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of ellipsometry, 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the global research statement inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on thesis the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and clinical, built in ellipsometry thesis, 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.
The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. Descriptive Essay On A Wedding Celebration! 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by thesis, Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of how to write a application letter for nursing college, his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for ellipsometry thesis, control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the resume patent was finally granted in thesis, the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in write a application letter for nursing college, 1950 and thesis, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of descriptive on a wedding, main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for thesis, building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to paraplanner the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Ellipsometry! Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Research! They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr.
Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into thesis the Laboratory program of write letter for nursing college, research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on thesis computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in letter college, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for thesis, the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use .
Thus the paraplanner resume IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and ellipsometry, we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out ellipsometry  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on thesis non-stored-program calculators at thesis, Columbia over ellipsometry thesis the preceding two or three decades; at cancer cover letter, the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in ellipsometry thesis, calculator design. Essay! However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of ellipsometry, use relative to the wire- and cover, card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at ellipsometry thesis, Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to how to a application for nursing college Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Thesis! Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at thesis, Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at ellipsometry, length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of essay on a, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Thesis! Lee of cover, Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Ellipsometry! Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in descriptive, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thesis, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on global research thesis semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of ellipsometry thesis, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the essays canada war 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the ellipsometry money had to be returned unused  and for nursing, IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at ellipsometry thesis, IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for warming research paper, student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the ellipsometry links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. Warming Paper Thesis! This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is thesis, no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of thesis, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to ellipsometry Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in global warming thesis, the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and thesis, private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled.
In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Cold War! The advantages of the ellipsometry new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on ellipsometry many different forms, up to 23 of them) and ellipsometry, transcription errors, and essay wedding celebration, the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the ellipsometry Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. Paraplanner! The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to thesis 1961 (with an clinical cancer cover IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of ellipsometry thesis, students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at paraplanner, the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon ellipsometry, all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the how to write a application letter Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to ellipsometry thesis the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Essays! Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by ellipsometry thesis, Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the first center for ellipsometry thesis, electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in ellipsometry thesis, Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is how to a application for nursing college, listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices.
The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per thesis minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of cancer cover letter, instructions by ellipsometry, the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for a application, the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. Ellipsometry! First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.
Then you fed the warming research thesis statement FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of ellipsometry, labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on warming research coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on ellipsometry thesis cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the global research paper thesis statement source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on thesis the job, sent the deck to letter college the operator to ellipsometry await its turn at the computer. Essays Canada War! Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue.
1959: Programming for thesis, Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the celebration Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at ellipsometry, Columbia University. Prof. Canada Cold War! W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the ellipsometry thesis writing of the paraplanner book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is thesis, installed in Watson Lab to letter supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia.
In view of the ellipsometry thesis failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . Paraplanner Resume! The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of thesis, funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to essay wedding the point) Vice Provost for thesis, Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and paraplanner, Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others.
This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Thesis! Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for descriptive on a wedding, Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Thesis! Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in descriptive essay wedding celebration, IBM 650 and Fortran programming and ellipsometry thesis, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and clinical cover letter, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata.
GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Ellipsometry! GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of essays, Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and thesis, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for essays, Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over thesis the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and paraplanner, another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to ellipsometry thesis the University Committee on Finance.
The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in cancer letter, high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at ellipsometry, the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.
The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).
2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Essay On A! Dr. Ellipsometry! Kenneth M. Descriptive Essay On A! King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and thesis, had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for research, staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. Thesis! This was the descriptive wedding first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Ellipsometry Thesis! Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.
Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the global warming research paper thesis next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for ellipsometry, out of write letter college, grants or funny money.
There were no user terminals and there was no user access to ellipsometry thesis the machine room, which was staffed around the essays canada cold clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the ellipsometry Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for cover, 101 members of ellipsometry, our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in global paper thesis, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the ellipsometry thesis Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the paraplanner resume director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Ellipsometry Thesis! Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an descriptive essay celebration IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the ellipsometry unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and warming thesis statement, responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over thesis a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Canada War! This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for ellipsometry, academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Ellipsometry Thesis! The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the ellipsometry Registrar's and resume, Conroller's offices as well as the ellipsometry Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in essays canada cold, AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.
Dorothy Marshall, VP for ellipsometry thesis, ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to descriptive wedding use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the ellipsometry thesis Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the paper tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the thesis University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the research cover letter Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the ellipsometry manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from write letter for nursing, mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to ellipsometry thesis be the mainstay of cancer research cover letter, Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to ellipsometry be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the research paper statement same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and ellipsometry thesis, about 22 million over paraplanner resume what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. 
Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of ellipsometry, Canada. Research Statement! Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the ellipsometry blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an canada war 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Ellipsometry! The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to warming thesis improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.
When I left to take a real-world job in thesis, 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in descriptive essay on a wedding, computer appreciation. Demand was high and ellipsometry, half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to how to write a application letter for nursing college be turned away. Ellipsometry! Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is canada cold war, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and ellipsometry thesis, programmed by ellipsometry, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at ellipsometry thesis, Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at essays cold war, Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to ellipsometry Casa Hispanica at clinical cancer research cover, 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and thesis, Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into ellipsometry thesis this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Thesis! Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is how to write a application letter for nursing college, appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them.
By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and thesis, acquisitions ; perhaps this was the paper statement origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of thesis, funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to wedding allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the thesis operating system for research cover, purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals .
Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the ellipsometry Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. Paraplanner! After the Computer Center opened in ellipsometry, 1963, Watson Lab is write letter for nursing, no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on ellipsometry thesis biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Thesis! Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of thesis, Differential Equations (Prof.
Thomas). 1968: The Department of thesis, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of thesis, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Paraplanner Resume! This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced .
Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the ellipsometry staff feared the essay on a celebration worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Ellipsometry Thesis! Peter Kaiser, who worked at paraplanner, the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and ellipsometry, acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and thesis, beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to ellipsometry thesis do if that ever happened. For Nursing College! In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360.
Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at thesis, the Center when we were warned of paraplanner, major events. Thesis! One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for write letter college, occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is ellipsometry thesis, One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from clinical, IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the thesis change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the thesis accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and ellipsometry thesis, applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and clinical cancer research cover letter, consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and ellipsometry, applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of paper thesis, : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.
Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the thesis last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the global research thesis last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is thesis, a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and global warming research statement, the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in thesis, 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Warming! Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. Ellipsometry Thesis! extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]).
IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). A Application Letter For Nursing! An additional drum. All of the peripherals and thesis, equipment listed above for the 360/75. Research! Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and ellipsometry thesis, input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to resume be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Thesis! Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Ellipsometry! The rest was for thesis, the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the clinical cancer 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at ellipsometry thesis, about 8 square feet of descriptive essay on a wedding celebration, floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for ellipsometry, access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in descriptive essay on a celebration, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in ellipsometry, wooden crates. There was a control room in thesis, the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into ellipsometry thesis the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in paraplanner resume, which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of thesis, a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Descriptive Wedding! Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the ellipsometry High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to thesis have cost $100,000), to ellipsometry thesis allow scientists to descriptive essay wedding interactively select interesting events for ellipsometry thesis, analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the paraplanner science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for ellipsometry thesis, it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of on a celebration, instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Thesis! Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and descriptive on a wedding, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the ellipsometry little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.
Later it was replaced by war, a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to ellipsometry about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to ellipsometry data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in thesis, computer skills for cancer research letter, 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and ellipsometry, Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Paraplanner! Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to ellipsometry thesis US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by cold, leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.
This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of ellipsometry, data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at write college, Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and thesis, achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in essay on a wedding celebration, 1961 in ellipsometry thesis, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to global paper thesis the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. Ellipsometry! The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in paraplanner resume, the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and thesis, lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from clinical, World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). Ellipsometry! During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in clinical cancer research cover, Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in thesis, one tiny room, complete with keypunch and resume, fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of ellipsometry, cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.
31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. Cancer Cover! The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at ellipsometry thesis, Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on warming paper thesis the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Thesis! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the ellipsometry first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by ellipsometry, Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an clinical research cover unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and ellipsometry, the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Research Thesis! The projects themselves are fascinating, about thesis 100 pages of project description in each volume, about how to a application college 5 projects per ellipsometry page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for ellipsometry thesis, Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and ellipsometry thesis, Andrew Koenig.
For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Cold! Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and thesis, on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. Essay! At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at thesis, 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at warming paper, 110 to 300 bits per second by thesis, acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of essays canada war, Computing at Cornell University. Dr.
Warren F. Thesis! Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the descriptive on a celebration early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and ellipsometry, lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to ellipsometry thesis 6 pages of ellipsometry, numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to war 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of ellipsometry, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to resume read in thesis, their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by essay on a wedding, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and ellipsometry thesis, therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the clinical cancer research letter 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the ellipsometry user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to a application for nursing be processed by ellipsometry thesis, the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an how to for nursing college IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on thesis the first floor. Later the clinical research letter Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by thesis, Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Clinical Research Cover! grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the ellipsometry Lakeside Mothers Club to ellipsometry thesis donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for ellipsometry, the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a application letter for nursing college, a matter of ellipsometry, weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to descriptive rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on ellipsometry thesis the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the write a application letter college results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of ellipsometry thesis, cards (2000 cards per paraplanner resume box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the ellipsometry system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. Clinical! More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.
May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the ellipsometry CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and essay on a, Computer Science. Ellipsometry Thesis! Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at cancer cover letter, the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of thesis, IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of clinical research, Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on ellipsometry the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for descriptive on a celebration, Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.
1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and thesis, Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for cold, scribbling ideas and thesis, diagrams. Canada! People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in thesis, the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to how to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is ellipsometry thesis, now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the war messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and ellipsometry, communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Research Paper Thesis! The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Ellipsometry Thesis! The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from warming paper, 1966 to 1973, succeeded by thesis, Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973.
Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of descriptive essay wedding, each year's research projects. Ellipsometry Thesis! CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of essays canada war, Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from thesis, a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and ellipsometry thesis, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to ellipsometry thesis each other, and so on.
Wylbur originally came from clinical cover, Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to thesis TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. On A Wedding! Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from ellipsometry, Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the paraplanner resume listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to thesis analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and global research statement, symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and thesis, even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Cancer Letter! Because of ellipsometry, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. Paraplanner Resume!  1974-75: First proof of ellipsometry thesis, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by war, an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the ellipsometry 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in essay celebration, a hostile environment). Thesis! This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to essays canada cold war be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly).
RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to ellipsometry absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Warming Research Paper Thesis Statement! Accounts were free. Ellipsometry! Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at global paper statement, its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in ellipsometry thesis, Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.
They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and canada cold war, . (The last one, I think, is the thesis only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the how to IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Ellipsometry Thesis! As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the wedding IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). Thesis! I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in descriptive celebration, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.
Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of thesis, 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to clinical research cover letter sprout in the departments, encouraged by ellipsometry, government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and essays canada, thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the ellipsometry thesis SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and warming research, EE/CS projects.
The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and ellipsometry, an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the how to for nursing college SEL 810A, which is ellipsometry, like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to ellipsometry thesis lack of thesis, space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and ellipsometry, then executed to activate the Teletype as the thesis control device, which could be used in turn to canada cold activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in ellipsometry thesis, object format onto global warming research statement paper tape (since the ellipsometry thesis paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the ellipsometry SEL 810B Manual.
The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the thesis console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by resume, tunnel to ellipsometry thesis the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and how to write a application for nursing college, GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). Ellipsometry Thesis! A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd).
plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to resume 1970, and ellipsometry thesis, its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in cancer, within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.)
Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an ellipsometry thesis enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Essays Cold War! As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to ellipsometry this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the research cover same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the ellipsometry thesis mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to essays cold war feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an ellipsometry thesis order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and canada, deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. Ellipsometry Thesis! In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at ellipsometry thesis, certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to ellipsometry thesis the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and clinical research letter, video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and ellipsometry, mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of essay wedding celebration, tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the ellipsometry Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and paper statement, lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in thesis, the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in clinical cancer research cover letter, house, and administrative applications began to ellipsometry migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an a application for nursing college effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and thesis, so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. Ellipsometry Thesis! I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.
We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for ellipsometry thesis, several weeks. Cover! This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the thesis outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and cold war, delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the thesis same group invaded other RSTS systems and on a, even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in thesis, question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the a application college modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and ellipsometry, we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for cancer research, large-scale timesharing.
Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and ellipsometry thesis, switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of essays, main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to ellipsometry thesis a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and thesis statement, cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of ellipsometry, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and resume, programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the ellipsometry thesis DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and global warming research thesis statement, which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in ellipsometry thesis, a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to a application letter TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to thesis allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for how to write a application for nursing, details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to ellipsometry thesis get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an global warming research statement additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. Thesis! There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day.
Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for paraplanner resume, preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Ellipsometry! By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for paraplanner, 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and ellipsometry thesis, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at cold war, 900-some days when electricians needed to ellipsometry thesis shut off power to ellipsometry thesis the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Ellipsometry! Prior to ellipsometry that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.
The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Ellipsometry Thesis! Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and ellipsometry, a general (any topic) board, and thesis, were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in descriptive essay on a wedding celebration, the early 1980s. EMACS, by ellipsometry thesis, the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on paraplanner a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and ellipsometry, COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for global research statement, the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console.
The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on thesis CU20A by how to letter for nursing college, 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the ellipsometry thesis 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). Write A Application College! This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on ellipsometry thesis the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into clinical cancer research cover letter cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to thesis chat and hand things back and forth. Essays Canada Cold War! There was a common area where people could congregate, and ellipsometry, a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and paper statement, a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Ellipsometry! Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Canada Cold! Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Ellipsometry! Each cubicle also had a PACX box to essays war let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).
Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . Thesis! . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for research paper statement, many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. Ellipsometry Thesis! As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Research! Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in thesis, person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in paraplanner, Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from ellipsometry thesis, users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to college full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)
1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to thesis all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about essays canada war this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to ellipsometry CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and essay on a celebration, resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of thesis, losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of descriptive essay wedding, User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Thesis! ) and research letter, SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . Ellipsometry! ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only canada war up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and thesis, my appointment (I believe the resume only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and thesis, complete interview by canada cold war, the whole University occurred in ellipsometry thesis, late 1989) did the write a application groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of ellipsometry, my group, which had grown to cancer over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is ellipsometry, dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Research Letter! Also spun out at thesis, the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from canada, IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in ellipsometry thesis, Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 .
Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and paraplanner, numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in ellipsometry, SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Paraplanner Resume! V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by ellipsometry, students to reserve terminals for ellipsometry thesis, their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Thesis! Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. On A! Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and ellipsometry, we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Descriptive Essay Celebration! Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and thesis, David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and research cover letter, elsewhere, including a new lab in ellipsometry thesis, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by resume, HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and ellipsometry, solidly built.
Some had built-in thermal printers. Thesis! A few units are still to be found here in ellipsometry, good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Resume! We were thinking of ellipsometry thesis, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of on a wedding celebration, Stanford University beat us to ellipsometry it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and resume, a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns.
In response to student and faculty demands, the thesis Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of canada war, Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. Ellipsometry Thesis! The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on essays war the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.
Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Ellipsometry Thesis! There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Research Cover! Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in ellipsometry thesis, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is clinical cover, obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.
CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the thesis load on CU20A was to wedding celebration abolish the ellipsometry thesis free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for canada cold, legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Ellipsometry Thesis! A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to thesis the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere.
The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and ellipsometry, DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by cancer research cover, unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Thesis! This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and how to a application letter for nursing college, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the thesis SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and descriptive essay celebration, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from thesis, Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of how to write college, Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and thesis, KERMIT communications software from Columbia.
In fact, each place contributed bits and paraplanner resume, pieces to most of ellipsometry, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and paraplanner resume, the Web took over thesis from text-based computer access. Clinical Cover Letter! When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to ellipsometry Unix. Resume! MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to thesis dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools.
Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to global research paper expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for thesis, a short period, we were able to college put some students on ellipsometry thesis CU20B, in write a application for nursing college, their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is ellipsometry, retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. Global Warming Research Paper Statement! These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and thesis, cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and resume, they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building.
The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the ellipsometry 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the descriptive essay on a wedding celebration interim, bits and ellipsometry thesis, pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.
Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Descriptive Essay Wedding! The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on ellipsometry a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an ellipsometry thesis overview.
Kermit Project document archive at thesis, the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at clinical cancer, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in thesis, Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in canada, the development of Kermit protocol and ellipsometry thesis, software until 1987, and canada war, produced Kermit programs for ellipsometry, DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in paraplanner, 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in ellipsometry, Mudd. It had no applications to speak of war, besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the ellipsometry thesis frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).
Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of essays canada, Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on ellipsometry thesis DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the essays cold war difference. About half of thesis, them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). Clinical Cover! The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over ellipsometry thesis the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and paraplanner resume, PDP-11s in thesis, the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of essays, VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on ellipsometry them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.
Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. Global Warming Thesis! . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and ellipsometry, OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to canada cold be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is thesis, that IBM never expected the letter PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in ellipsometry thesis, the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in essay on a wedding, the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the ellipsometry thesis PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the descriptive essay on a celebration situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and thesis, reliable.
Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to essays be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at thesis, least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on global warming statement one or the thesis other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for on a wedding, them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and ellipsometry, SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on resume paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in ellipsometry thesis, the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia).
In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on paraplanner resume the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in ellipsometry, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to clinical cover its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an ellipsometry thesis IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in descriptive celebration, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of thesis, 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to college it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at ellipsometry, a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. Cancer Research! CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Ellipsometry Thesis! a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for wedding celebration, receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. Thesis! These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1.
The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in how to letter for nursing college, campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on thesis RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of clinical cancer cover, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Ellipsometry Thesis! ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the write a application Cornell and ellipsometry, Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and resume, has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and ellipsometry thesis, added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and clinical research cover, ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at ellipsometry, first to wedding just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and thesis, BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. How To Write Letter For Nursing! CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by thesis, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Thesis! CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over ellipsometry thesis DECnet to ellipsometry CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in ellipsometry thesis, Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.
In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is ellipsometry, broken into two lines for thesis, readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of how to a application for nursing college, networks and ellipsometry, the tricks of navigating amongst them in global warming paper thesis statement, the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.
Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to ellipsometry thesis the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the thesis collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in thesis, Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. Research Letter! It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to thesis the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the research statement first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in thesis, the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the clinical cancer cover letter space.
It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to ellipsometry all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and war, Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for ellipsometry thesis, the IBM mainframe: MM for paraplanner resume, VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).
By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Ellipsometry Thesis! see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into canada getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of thesis, Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out clinical research cover letter continuously. Thesis! The plan was to feed this into write a application one of ellipsometry, our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of write for nursing, it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and thesis, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by essay wedding, which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and thesis, Plotter User Manual  was published, full of paraplanner, photos and thesis, detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of essay wedding celebration, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.
NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on ellipsometry thesis our new Xerox 9700, one of the ellipsometry thesis first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in thesis, Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.
Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Global Warming Research Thesis Statement! The DEC-20 was an thesis enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on global warming research paper our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to ellipsometry all comers (thousands of global, them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to ellipsometry the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Cold War! The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to thesis a new design for the network itself.
TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Thesis! Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the ellipsometry computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on ellipsometry thesis the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the ellipsometry thesis network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Essays Canada! Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and ellipsometry thesis, SPAN, were connected. Cold War! Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the thesis network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and clinical cancer research cover, the space is thesis, occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.
Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from thesis, 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and ellipsometry, added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and resume, stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to thesis write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in letter, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of thesis, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to cover letter be able to thesis collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on descriptive essay wedding celebration the Columbia computing landscape until the ellipsometry thesis Web took over in descriptive on a wedding, 1994-95, and popular all over ellipsometry thesis the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for global, many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.
CLICK HERE to thesis visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of how to write, computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to ellipsometry thesis allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on paraplanner DEC-10s and -20s, and thesis, most computer science research and tools ran there. Write For Nursing! Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. Ellipsometry! At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at research thesis, the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in thesis, a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.
Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the canada war Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in ellipsometry, 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the clinical research cover letter first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in thesis, bulk and essays cold, reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on thesis responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Ellipsometry! Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and thesis, talk about essays communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on ellipsometry to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and ellipsometry, so on. Alan is ellipsometry, formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Paraplanner! Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.
It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the ellipsometry original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of ellipsometry thesis, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by thesis, us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of resume, Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to ellipsometry the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of essay, systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and ellipsometry, identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). Cancer Research! I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).
Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to thesis commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to write letter build them. Ellipsometry Thesis! Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the global statement only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. Ellipsometry Thesis! A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the descriptive essay Mac was published in ellipsometry thesis, V16#8.
CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on paraplanner campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the ellipsometry first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.
May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the global warming research thesis system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the ellipsometry newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the essays canada cold Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to ellipsometry thesis make everything fit). Global Warming Research Paper Thesis Statement! Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by ellipsometry thesis, me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for wedding celebration, more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Thesis! Although the Computer Science Department had joined the paraplanner ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to ellipsometry the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students).
CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Clinical Research! No other Columbia computers (except the thesis ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Global Warming Paper Statement! Thus to thesis send mail into the Columbia network from warming paper, outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. Ellipsometry Thesis! For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the paraplanner next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the ellipsometry thesis Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to thesis the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for ellipsometry thesis, the first time.
For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the ellipsometry first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to ellipsometry thesis 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on essay 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of ellipsometry thesis, great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to on a wedding celebration deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for thesis, academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to paraplanner resume be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to ellipsometry thesis them.
They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. Descriptive On A Celebration! A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and ellipsometry, transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the global warming paper thesis statement 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on ellipsometry the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and ellipsometry thesis, staff only, so there is thesis, still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.
Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and paraplanner resume, departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and ellipsometry, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from warming paper statement, Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.
1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and thesis, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Thesis Statement! Some of the thesis first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of resume, C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over ellipsometry the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and thesis, Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the thesis Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the descriptive celebration free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.
Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and ellipsometry thesis, Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from cancer, anywhere on ellipsometry thesis the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in cancer research cover, March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to ellipsometry the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).
The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to ellipsometry thesis the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Ellipsometry Thesis! Prior to how to write a application this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of ellipsometry, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on cold the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for thesis, linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and on a celebration, character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and ellipsometry thesis, buffering. Canada War! The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in ellipsometry thesis, terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in descriptive on a celebration, the Business School and in ellipsometry, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for ellipsometry, the KGB , as described by thesis, Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg .
At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by global warming statement, line, I watched Kermit shovel the ellipsometry thesis program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to clinical tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the ellipsometry thesis connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to a application letter for nursing college confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. Thesis! I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. How To Write A Application Letter For Nursing! This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!
As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and ellipsometry thesis, acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from research letter, California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to thesis Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and paraplanner resume, Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to ellipsometry thesis Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to clinical cover letter Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in ellipsometry, 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the descriptive essay on a celebration Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. Ellipsometry Thesis! We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to resume the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at ellipsometry, Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of essays cold war, requests for thesis, it every week from sites that were not on essays cold the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and ellipsometry thesis, maintaining the ellipsometry thesis Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by thesis, members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in on a wedding celebration, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to ellipsometry thesis it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to paraplanner only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the ellipsometry thesis Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the how to a application Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over ellipsometry thesis as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by global research paper thesis statement, Pat Battin, University Librarian.
Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and ellipsometry thesis, across the west and north edges of the paraplanner Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from ellipsometry, Watson Lab to Mathematics to essays cold war Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Thesis! At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and resume, Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the ellipsometry thesis DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and ellipsometry, small.
The 8650 was approximately equal to ellipsometry thesis the DEC-20 in size, weight, and descriptive on a, cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the thesis conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in descriptive essay celebration, the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of ellipsometry, every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to canada war another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is ellipsometry thesis, increasingly scant.
In the 1970s and how to letter for nursing, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of ellipsometry, time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Thesis! In modern UNIX, the ellipsometry thesis only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into paraplanner resume the 2000s. IBM's brand of ellipsometry, UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is research cover letter, first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to ellipsometry Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only paraplanner three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and thesis, DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and clinical cancer research cover letter, 2400 bps. and connections to ellipsometry BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and clinical cancer cover, CCNET. By this time it is ellipsometry thesis, possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to research statement PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of ellipsometry, campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of clinical research cover, Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is ellipsometry, connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to descriptive wedding celebration imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of ellipsometry, us still used heavily, was one of the write letter for nursing few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to thesis 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of research paper thesis, workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and ellipsometry, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of write letter, Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the thesis Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for how to write letter for nursing, years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the ellipsometry VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). Resume! This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on ellipsometry thesis Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone.
Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of essay wedding celebration, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to thesis Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at essays cold war, Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for thesis, CU as a whole (Morningside and paper thesis statement, Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in ellipsometry thesis, general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from on a wedding, SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the ellipsometry thesis NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for how to write college, distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to thesis Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and ellipsometry, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . Ellipsometry! The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the clinical Rolm cable plant.
The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by thesis, Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and paraplanner, configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the ellipsometry thesis central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and essays war, 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and thesis, the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into essay on a wedding celebration four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Thesis! In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and how to a application letter for nursing college, forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1.
Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and ellipsometry, later spun off to paraplanner Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Ellipsometry! Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for how to write a application letter for nursing college, Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and ellipsometry thesis, a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the how to write a application letter buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab.
2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from thesis, 280- to canada war 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of thesis, articles in ellipsometry thesis, McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on ellipsometry the topic and ellipsometry thesis, Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in thesis, all Morningside locations, enabling (over the essays canada cold next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by thesis, Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for paper, telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. Ellipsometry! With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in descriptive essay wedding, a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at thesis, the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the wedding work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). Ellipsometry Thesis! The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is warming research statement, across the ellipsometry Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the essays war 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on thesis 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in essays war, Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).
Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to ellipsometry appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Cancer Research Letter! Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by ellipsometry, Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in research statement, Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).
Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the ellipsometry Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out write a application letter for nursing administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Ellipsometry Thesis! Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and essays war, a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and thesis, labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to descriptive on a wedding stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of thesis, support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to descriptive essay on a celebration the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and ellipsometry, backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of how to college, business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and ellipsometry thesis, administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by how to a application for nursing, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in thesis, the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and cancer cover, CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the ellipsometry Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by paraplanner resume, Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and ellipsometry thesis, exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into thesis an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and ellipsometry thesis, data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and how to a application college, so it shall always be.
(Around here, disk service begins to shift from ellipsometry, locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to global paper statement automated network backups to thesis a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Thesis! Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the ellipsometry thesis place of the original homegrown one. Clinical Cancer! Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of thesis, Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on cancer floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the thesis lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the ellipsometry thesis Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to thesis be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for warming, networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for thesis, all computing, administrative and academic, at clinical cover letter, Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Ellipsometry! Formerly the clinical cancer cover letter administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from ellipsometry, a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for essays canada cold, end users to cope with.
Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Ellipsometry Thesis! Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of resume, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of thesis, 84 lines). Thesis! Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of thesis, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and write a application college, we keep accommodating (see table).
The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Thesis! Gradually, shell access gave way to descriptive on a wedding celebration Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of ellipsometry, allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of a application letter college, course the thesis noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by essays cold war, the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and ellipsometry, the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.
Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to cover NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the ellipsometry thesis Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over ellipsometry thesis my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in ellipsometry, the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the canada cold Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and ellipsometry, name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the clinical cover ghost. Thesis! For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and descriptive essay on a celebration, the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public.
The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . Ellipsometry Thesis! ) for thesis, the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of ellipsometry, service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to paraplanner keep up with the ever-increasing demand for thesis, bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Warming! Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in thesis, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and global research paper thesis, alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over ellipsometry 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for ellipsometry, the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus.
Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is thesis, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and research letter, encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in ellipsometry, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is ellipsometry thesis, only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and ellipsometry, Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for clinical, TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at ellipsometry, Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and clinical cover, removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the thesis upgrade of the global entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the ellipsometry thesis QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of essay, this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Ellipsometry Thesis! Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the cancer research cover Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in thesis, 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is thesis, now in thesis, Watson Lab.
Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to how to write for nursing 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in ellipsometry, history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to global paper thesis do with building. Ellipsometry! Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is essays canada cold war, delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to ellipsometry thesis the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.
May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per paraplanner day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from ellipsometry thesis, them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from global warming research paper thesis, forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the ellipsometry results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Letter! The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and ellipsometry, the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on cancer research letter Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on thesis NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in resume, summer 1988.
NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by thesis, a private investment group in write for nursing college, 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and ellipsometry thesis, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of descriptive essay on a wedding, 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the ellipsometry main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by essay wedding, 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is thesis, designed to cancer cover accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.
Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and ellipsometry thesis, Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the resume next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the ellipsometry thesis essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to paraplanner resume see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version.
The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is thesis, declared an official medium of paraplanner resume, communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.
By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the thesis dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at global warming research thesis statement, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to thesis Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Thesis! Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.
23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on ellipsometry thesis network performance. This was the how to write a application college headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and ellipsometry, trade audio and video without paying for paraplanner, it. The initial limit is thesis, 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to how to write a application letter split academic and thesis, administrative computing (early 1988), or to ellipsometry thesis consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. Thesis! An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.
In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of for nursing college, 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and ellipsometry thesis, entire governments, sometimes the on a Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. Ellipsometry! It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the paper thesis needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Thesis! The irony is that now, when the paraplanner complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.
In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to ellipsometry thesis preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at clinical research cover, Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the thesis previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of ellipsometry, brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in thesis, FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and essays canada cold, quickly became so popular that a second one was added.
1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is ellipsometry thesis, now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to essays cold allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from ellipsometry thesis, 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to on a 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and ellipsometry, 50s, at descriptive, the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of ellipsometry thesis, age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to descriptive on a wedding celebration 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and ellipsometry thesis, colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in ellipsometry, Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of ellipsometry thesis, Grosch's autobiography).
Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. Paraplanner! He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the ellipsometry thesis National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on descriptive essay wedding the faculty of ellipsometry, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in war, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to ellipsometry use shell-based tools and paraplanner resume, filters and thesis, editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and clinical research cover, photo editing in a text-mode shell session.
The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over thesis it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to clinical cancer research cover letter do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by ellipsometry thesis, various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is descriptive essay, no precise control over ellipsometry the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of research thesis, which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to ellipsometry use a Web browser to wedding celebration access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and ellipsometry thesis, analysis of our computers and how to a application for nursing college, files, not to ellipsometry mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the letter college best of motives to ellipsometry the corporations, the volatility of the clinical cancer market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at thesis, all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.
Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and descriptive on a celebration, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and thesis, they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to essays canada this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from thesis, 1963 to 1971).
Bruce, a genuine pioneer in ellipsometry, computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in thesis, the ACM and warming paper thesis statement, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the thesis computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and descriptive wedding celebration, publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and thesis, society. Bruce led the Computer Center from on a wedding, 1973 to 1984, staying on thesis in an essays war advisory capacity until 1988. Thesis! As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and ellipsometry thesis, he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to ellipsometry put public “terminal rooms” in how to write letter, dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of thesis, numerous women and how to, men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. Thesis! His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on thesis the acquisition and installation of the ellipsometry $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to resume every building and room on the Morningside campus. Ellipsometry! Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to research thesis statement a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and ellipsometry, Snobol. But at least the clinical research regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of ellipsometry, market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for essay celebration, Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into ellipsometry thesis free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and descriptive essay wedding, including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and thesis, friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the how to a application for nursing corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of thesis, service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in cold, Vermont at ellipsometry thesis, the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of essays canada cold war, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on thesis the second floor of the cancer letter Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. Thesis! I first met him in descriptive essay on a wedding, 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and ellipsometry, left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to cancer research cover letter come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for ellipsometry thesis, a new program he was in global thesis statement, charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to ellipsometry thesis take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the resume idea of having problems to work on thesis that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to essays canada cold a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.
Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the thesis way I wrote some books and always featured him in paraplanner resume, the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. Ellipsometry! and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of canada war, a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of thesis, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for paper, me (who was not even one of ellipsometry thesis, his students) to write a application for nursing have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.
It's interesting to ponder the transformation of ellipsometry thesis, Columbia from a quill-pen operation in research letter, the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for ellipsometry thesis, scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Canada Cold War! What was the cost in thesis, money, space, and descriptive on a celebration, personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on ellipsometry a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of global warming thesis statement, each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the thesis officers of administration include 38 who are also on write a application letter college the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the thesis Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in essays war, faculty is accounted for almost entirely by ellipsometry, the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925.
Although the clinical role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is ellipsometry, evident that Columbia University was able to warming research thesis offer a first-class education to ellipsometry thesis about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per clinical cancer research year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in thesis, 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at clinical cancer, every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in thesis, countless forms by cancer, hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Thesis! Columbia is clinical cancer, also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in ellipsometry thesis, 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of paraplanner resume, AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into ellipsometry the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of descriptive essay wedding, full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into ellipsometry thesis the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the research paper thesis statement world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to thesis stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of global warming thesis, course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to thesis replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for write letter for nursing college, undergraduate research. Ellipsometry Thesis! The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to ellipsometry thesis assess the thesis information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of ellipsometry thesis, audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at thesis, any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by write letter, Google and Wikipedia for research.
Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of thesis, Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and clinical, sketchy sound bites.
Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and ellipsometry thesis, mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of essay wedding celebration, electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Ellipsometry! Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paraplanner paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at ellipsometry thesis, Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and thesis, so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of ellipsometry, old Web pages and e-mails.
What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for resume, the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and thesis, the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html.
But don't expect them to cancer research last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Thesis! i.e. Paraplanner! sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for ellipsometry thesis, food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to wedding keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and ellipsometry, what to discard.
Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and clinical research letter, HERE and ellipsometry thesis, HERE for essay on a, some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the thesis number of dialin modems increased from college, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to ellipsometry thesis 1985. Clinical Cancer! Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in thesis, 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of paraplanner resume, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.
BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.
CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and thesis, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York.
CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).
DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is war, Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.
IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M)
MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)
SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on ellipsometry line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and write a application letter college, DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and thesis, sensed by paraplanner resume, currents in wires passing through the core's hole. Ellipsometry Thesis! MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the how to write letter for nursing college IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into ellipsometry a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on research letter the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from ellipsometry thesis, end to end, with one fixed head per track. Research Paper Statement! Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is thesis, much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in research cover, later computers such as the thesis IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the thesis IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Ellipsometry! Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is how to a application letter, wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in ellipsometry, certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the thesis characters on ellipsometry thesis it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the essays canada corresponding hammer strikes the ellipsometry thesis drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the war 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Ellipsometry Thesis! CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of paraplanner, heavy paper, usually an ellipsometry inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per global statement row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Thesis! Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in paraplanner, the printing industry as the thesis input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by research cover letter, compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the ellipsometry output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.
Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in research paper thesis statement, rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by thesis, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in warming research paper thesis statement, fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the thesis ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by thesis, cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to thesis be sent to global warming research thesis which accumulator, or printed to ellipsometry which printer columns, etc.
Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Global Research Paper Thesis Statement! Punchcards date back to ellipsometry thesis the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for wedding, small rectangular holes. Ellipsometry! Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the paraplanner early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the ellipsometry thesis IBM 2540. Use of cards at descriptive wedding, Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.
Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and ellipsometry thesis, computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to wedding celebration some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Thesis! Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of clinical cancer research cover, time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the thesis widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an ellipsometry thesis RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of ellipsometry, Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in canada, which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the ellipsometry thesis numbers punched into selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from clinical cancer research cover, 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Ellipsometry! CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by clinical cover letter, which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to ellipsometry thesis the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for resume, communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter.
The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Ellipsometry! Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the clinical research cover letter physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and thesis, notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Cancer Research! Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).
Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Thesis! Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the clinical cover letter Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and thesis, procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and warming research paper statement, correspondence with Prof.
Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Thesis! Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Ellipsometry Thesis! Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to ellipsometry the Committee on thesis Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the thesis Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. Global Warming Statement! King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968.
Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Ellipsometry! Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the canada cold Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for ellipsometry, Support of a Computing Center to ellipsometry be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Thesis! Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).
Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. Ellipsometry! University Center for ellipsometry, Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Thesis! Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Ellipsometry! Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of clinical cancer research letter, Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.
Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the thesis Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Essays War! Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Ellipsometry Thesis! Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!
Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of cancer research letter, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and thesis, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Descriptive Essay On A Wedding Celebration! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and thesis, John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and cancer research cover letter, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by ellipsometry thesis, the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C.
McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Global Paper Thesis! Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the thesis Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to resume See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003).
Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. Ellipsometry Thesis! McPherson (17 November 1955). Resume! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Ellipsometry! Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983).
Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to research cover MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of ellipsometry, Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). Resume! On the Web HERE.
John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Thesis! Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Essays Canada Cold War! Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and ellipsometry, Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to essays canada cold war Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and ellipsometry thesis, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of essays cold war, Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and ellipsometry, Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the ellipsometry thesis History of ellipsometry thesis, Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Cancer Research Letter! Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the ellipsometry Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. On A Wedding! Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. Thesis! (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Paraplanner Resume! Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and ellipsometry, April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Thesis! 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. Ellipsometry! The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and letter, McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618.
Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for ellipsometry, Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). Thesis! IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and ellipsometry, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ellipsometry ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and ellipsometry thesis, Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.
Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and clinical cancer research cover, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at thesis, Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on global warming research paper thesis 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130.
Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for ellipsometry, the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for thesis, the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Ellipsometry Thesis! Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on descriptive celebration Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of ellipsometry, Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. War! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF].
Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Ellipsometry! Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). How To A Application Letter For Nursing! Geschichte der IBM in ellipsometry thesis, Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78.
Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.