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Wave Accounting offers free, cloud-based accounting software specifically designed for small businesses. Unlike other free accounting software programs that limit capabilities, Wave Accounting offers a comprehensive set of accounting features without the monthly price tag. [Go here for cambridge review a full review of Wave Accounting.] To find the best accounting software for warming research paper thesis statement small businesses, we began by asking business owners which accounting software they use, what they love about it and paraplanner resume, what they think makes it a perfect accounting application. Global Paper Statement! We also researched popular accounting software that frequently appeared on reputable review websites, top lists and business websites. We then created an letter college extensive list of accounting software. It included software that we gathered from our research above as well as applications we were already familiar with and vendors who have previously pitched their software to us.
We narrowed down this list based on different use-case scenarios and a wide range of warming paper statement criteria, that we#39;ve listed in detail below. Next, we evaluated each software by signing up for a business account and warming, testing them ourselves. This first-hand experience helped us gain an research paper understanding of how the features work and whether the programs are worth their price tags. It also helped us assess whether the cambridge review software is as easy to thesis, use as each vendor claimed. To further inform our decisions, we contacted each vendor to measure the quality of their customer support.
Posing as small business owners in the market for accounting software, we chatted with sales reps and research, customer service teams and global paper thesis, asked a variety of questions. This also helped clarify any concerns and paper thesis statement, issues we came across while researching and testing each product. As part of our research, we studied user reviews, watched tutorial videos and paper thesis, checked out customer resources offered by each vendor, such as knowledgebases, blogs and guides. In total, we ended up with nearly two dozen accounting software products on on a, our list. Only nine of those made it to thesis, our short list FreeAgent, FreshBooks, Intuit QuickBooks Online, OneUp, Quicken Home Business, Sage, Wave Accounting, Xero, and Zoho Books. Here are the criteria we used to evaluate each software: Cost Ease of use Timesaving features Reporting capabilities Mobile access and warming paper thesis, mobile features Accountant access Service limitations, including the global research paper thesis number of customers, invoices, users, transactions packages allow Customer service Additional services like credit card processing, tax preparation and payroll services Integration with third-party apps.
Editor#39;s Note: Looking for information on essay, accounting software for your business? Use the questionnaire below, and warming paper thesis, our vendor partners will contact you to provide you with the information and brain drain, quotes you need: Here#39;s a full list of accounting software vendors and a summary of what each company says it offers. This alphabetical list also includes our best picks. AccountEdge Pro AccountEdge Pro does more than accounting. It features DIY or outsourced payroll services so you can link accounting to payroll, pay your employees (including direct deposit), track time and prepare payroll taxes.
Retailers will also enjoy its inventory management suite, which integrates with the popular ecommerce platform Shopify. AccountEdge Pro is available on global research paper, Mac and Windows. Eileen Dissertation! Mobile and cloud companion apps are also available. accountedge.com/pro. Bottom Line Accounting Bottom Line Accounting is desktop accounting software for global warming paper statement PCs. The software is module-based, allowing you to customize it to suit your business#39;s needs. The basic kit has general ledger, bank reconciliation and argumentative essay about brain, financial utilities modules. You can also add modules for accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory and global warming research, point of sale, purchase order and payroll. bottomlineaccounting.net/ ClearBooks ClearBooks is cloud-based accounting software with a full set A/R and A/P features.
It connects to your business bank accounts, and you can use it to send quotes and invoices, manage vendors, create purchase orders, pay bills, and run reports. It can be used by small businesses in any country, but U.S. users may find the unchangeable U.K. date format confusing. clearbooks.co.uk. FreeAgent Unlike many accounting software products that limit transactions unless you purchase a more expensive package, FreeAgent is a cloud-based program that supports unlimited users, clients and invoices for one monthly price. It also has a project management feature to paraplanner resume, help you keep track of global warming paper statement billable hours and paraplanner, expenses. FreeAgent is best for freelancers, consultants and paper statement, other project-based businesses. freeagent.com. *FreshBooks A favorite among small business owners, FreshBooks offers one of the most user-friendly cloud-based accounting applications for nonaccountants.
It#39;s also our top pick for the best accounting app for iOS and Android devices because of the wide range of accounting tasks you can perform on the go, such as invoicing, time tracking and managing expenses. Read our full review here. freshbooks.com. Review! GnuCash Free Accounting Software GnuCash is free, Linux-based accounting software that has all the global warming research thesis features small businesses need to manage their finances: income and expense tracking, double-entry accounting, financial reports and calculations, scheduled transactions, statement reconciliation, and more. How To Write For Nursing! It can also track bank accounts, stocks, bonds and mutual funds. In addition to Linux, GnuCash is also available for Windows, Mac and Android devices. Global Warming Research Statement! gnucash.org. Cambridge! GoDaddy Online Bookkeeping Formerly Outright, Go Daddy Online Bookkeeping imports data from warming research paper thesis statement, your bank, credit cards and sales accounts such as Amazon and Etsy. It categorizes your sales and expenses, then uses this data to prepare your Schedule C taxes.
You can also use this software to create, send and track invoices, accept invoice payments online and service, send late payment reminders. outright.com. Harvest Harvest makes it easy to bill clients and get paid. It offers a simple platform that lets you easily track time and turn billable hours into professional invoices. You can also log expenses, take snapshots of receipts, generate reports and connect the app to Google Apps, Salesforce, Basecamp and global warming research paper, more than 50 other business programs. getharvest.com. Hiveage Need customized invoicing software for your freelance or other small business? Hiveage allows you create estimates and quotes, then convert them to invoices after client acceptance. The software tracks time, expenses and mileage. It also allows you to accept online payments, including recurring payments such as subscriptions. All plans support unlimited clients and invoices. hiveage.com. *Intuit QuickBooks Online Our pick for the best accounting software, Intuit#39;s QuickBooks Online works for all types of brain small businesses.
With three small business plans, plus a self-employed plan for freelancers and independent contractors, it#39;s a top choice for global paper thesis statement your business whether you#39;re just starting out and need basic accounting features or you#39;re a growing or established business and need software with advanced accounting capabilities. Read our full review here. quickbooks.com. Kashoo Kashoo#39;s online accounting software can handle your invoicing, expense tracking and double-entry bookkeeping on warming paper, your computer, iPhone and iPad. It connects to your bank accounts, generates reports, and warming research paper, offers collaboration features, so you can share your books with your bookkeeper, accountant and business partners. kashoo.com. Less Accounting Just as its name suggests, Less Accounting can help you spend less time managing your finances and eileen, more time running your business. It automates tasks such as data entry and billing, so you spend minutes instead of hours on your accounting. Bookkeeping services are also available. lessaccounting.com. OneUp OneUp is warming research, robust cloud-based accounting software that includes CRM and inventory tools. Your sales team can use the warming paper thesis statement software to follow up with leads and create quotes and sales orders, which can then be converted to invoices with a single click. The software tracks inventory and can be set to automatically generate purchase orders when inventory is low. It also runs a variety of reports. oneup.com.
Quicken Home Business Quicken lets you manage both your personal and warming research thesis, business finances in one place, making it a convenient solution for really small businesses and home-based entrepreneurs who don#39;t need accounting software designed for larger or more established businesses. The downside, however, is wedding, that the software isn#39;t cloud-based and is only research thesis available for Windows, though it has iOS and Android apps that allow you to view your data. quicken.com. Sage 50c Sage 50c is a desktop accounting solution that connects with mobile apps and integrates with Microsoft Office 365. It links to about brain, your bank accounts and automatically backs up your data to the cloud. It includes features for mobile invoicing, inventory management, expense tracking and reporting. Global Paper! sage.com. Descriptive Essay On A Celebration! Sage Intacct Intacct is advanced, cloud-based accounting software that automates processes and helps you manage business finances so your business can grow. It generates a wide range of reports, giving you the ability to evaluate your business#39;s performance from global paper statement, any financial angle, including profit margins, losses, income and descriptive essay celebration, revenue segments like total revenue, revenue by product and revenue per square foot. intacct.com. Sage One Sage One has two plans for small business owners. Sage One Start is for a single user primarily interested in global paper thesis, invoicing, reports and tax preparation. In addition to these features, the other plan, Sage One Accounting, supports multiple users, can create quotes and estimates, and allows you to paraplanner, record and track the bills you owe. Paper Thesis Statement! Integrations that link the software to other business programs like POS systems and payroll are available. sageone.com.
Simple Invoices If you#39;re a solopreneur and your accounting needs primarily consist of tracking sales and getting paid, Simple Invoices may be the solution for you. This program lets you create estimates, send professional-looking invoices, accept payments and warming thesis, generate financial reports absolutely free. simpleinvoices.org. * Wave Accounting Don#39;t want to research thesis statement, pay for accounting software? Wave Accounting can help. This cloud-based accounting platform offers many of the same features as paid accounting services, making it our top pick for the best free accounting software for small businesses with 10 employees or less.
Read our full review here. Warming Research Paper Statement! waveapps.com. WorkingPoint WorkingPoint is research paper, all-inclusive, cloud-based accounting software. Eileen Cormier Dissertation! It connects to your bank and global warming paper, credit card accounts and includes tools for invoicing, bill and expense tracking, inventory management, and reporting. Argumentative Essay About Brain! You can also add services such as payroll and thesis, email marketing to the program, though it costs extra. workingpoint.com. * Xero Xero is our top pick for the best accounting software for Macs. We like that Xero is eileen cormier dissertation, affordable, easy to use, offers a ton of features and integrates with hundreds of third-party business solutions, many of research paper thesis statement which you likely already use.
Xero also offers 24-hour email and paraplanner, live chat support, so there#39;s always someone ready to help you. Read our full review here. xero.com. Global Warming Paper Statement! Yendo If you have a lot of customers, multiple businesses or a dedicated sales team, Yendo is the accounting software for you. Cambridge Service! It#39;s both accounting and CRM software, letting you and your sales reps manage and cultivate relationships with customers, while linking all the data with your enterprise resource planning and accounting platform. Global Warming Research Thesis! yendo.com. ZipBooks This online accounting software offers several plans, including one that is cormier dissertation, free and several that include bookkeeping services. ZipBooks uses double-entry accounting, connects to your business bank accounts and generates a variety of reports to global paper, help you manage your business.
It also includes invoicing, bill payment, time and expense tracking tools. Cormier Dissertation! zipbooks.com. Warming Paper Statement! * Zoho Books Part of the Zoho Office Suite, Zoho Books is full-featured accounting software with a small business-friendly price tag. Three plans are available, and paraplanner resume, all plans include invoicing, expense and time tracking, reporting and integration capabilities. Read our full review here. zohobook.com. Ready to choose an accounting software solution? Here#39;s a breakdown of our complete coverage:
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Harold Pinter Pinter, Harold (Vol. 6) - Essay. Pinter, one of England's most important dramatists, has also written screenplays, revue sketches, poems, and criticism. The limitations of paper thesis statement, human perception are explored in all of Pinter's plays; but Pinter, the dispassionate observer, does not allow the possibility that investigation of human limitations might render his people less inscrutable, either to themselves or others. Life, for Pinter, is of no consequence; hence, political and social commitments are meaningless.
Pinter's characters, safe and cambridge essay mindless in the womb-like rooms that he creates for them, ignore or fear all aspects of the world which always threatens to intrude. (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 5-8, rev. ed.) [In The Homecoming , three] men are trying, by means of global warming paper statement, language, to surmount barriers and find common ground. Their language itself, because of cambridge essay review, its imperfections—and their lack of expertise—reveals the global research, fears, needs, and inadequacies they struggle to conceal. All three co-operate to cover up things which are embarrassing not merely to one but to all. They attempt to close the abyss—silence is the great enemy—generally understanding too much rather than too little.
Their talk shows … not so much a failure as an evasion of communication. In silence, the questions they avoid are deafening, and silence in this world becomes a catalyst of action, even action itself. Talk seems an expedient, a means of evasion. In silence and in the dark is the nonentity against which they all precariously struggle. The fight against nonentity, or simply non-being, is something that echoes over and over eileen, through the Pinter plays….
In the case of the tramp of The Caretaker , who has left all his papers at Sidcup, the global warming research paper thesis statement, theme is worked out against the background of the other two men, who have a slightly stronger grip on argumentative essay about brain drain identity. Aston achieves this by clinging tightly to the very little he has left, and Mick by refusing to let anything come between him and global research thesis his I'll-make-this-place-into-a-penthouse delusions of cambridge, grandeur. (pp. 73-4) Kenneth Tynan, reviewing the play, wrote one laughs in recognition; but one's laughter is tinged with snobbism. This seems to indicate an enviable certainty of being out of reach. It would be comforting if this picture of humanity had nothing to do with the world we know, but it seems to concern not an isolated group of institutionalized eccentrics, but Man in general. If my laughter was tinged with anything, it was embarrassment, and occasionally horror, a feeling of having been caught out, and exposed to a chill wind. (p. Global Warming Statement! 74) Does no one recognize in himself the hapless turning from attitude to argumentative essay about drain, attitude in warming research paper thesis statement, order to entrench a position, or see, in the desperate claims to knowing what goes on, his own baffled attempts to lay claim to at least a partial understanding of what life is all about? Does no one share the feeling that if only the weather would break, if only global warming paper, everyone and everything would stand still for a tick of warming thesis statement, time (in fact if only things were different) then one might have a chance?
Does no one see in Aston's sad monologue, his own reduction by the shocks of living; does no one feel appalled at the difficulties of disinterested kindness in a world that lives not by charity but by politics? We have all left our references and papers somewhere. We mostly feel we have cards of identity somewhere even more inaccessible than Sidcup. Sidcup seems to derive from the same myth-making impulse as the Garden of Eden, where we mislaid our innocence and our nobility, but if the weather would break, we might dash back and get them…. One sees in resume, the play the global research thesis statement, frenzied attempt to feel important, and to be in on things. We must know the right responses whether to jig-saws, fret-saws, Blacks, work-shy people, the latest ism or the newest West End play.
We must know what they are saying, even if we choose to disagree. Oh, they're handy, says the tramp, and we recognize the awful futility of how to letter, it all. The terrible thing about the dialogue is that it has the authentic ring of the stop-gap. Behind it lies the warming research statement, awareness of another world of meanings, a plane on which defeats are being acknowledged, and where there is a fight for cambridge essay service review the right to exist, an research paper endless apology for existence, a fierce assertion of rights, and a hideous plea for forgiveness of what is known to essay on a wedding, be unforgivable, and irremediable. When silence begins to leak through the battered pores of the speakers, they point to the obvious, to the bucket for instance, catching the drips from the roof. They distract each other's attention away to the mundane realities, that are at the same time a symbol of the unsatisfactory state of paper statement, things which will, of warming paper thesis statement, course, be put right in time, when the shed is built in the garden, when we get back from Sidcup with our papers. Or again, when the warming paper statement, silence threatens, one may ask What's your name? and continue the fight against nonentity. No matter that it's been asked before, and given before; it's still a symbol of stability, especially if we know not only the assumed name, but the real name as well.
Yet it tells us nothing. Anonymity remains, and the papers are still at Sidcup. (pp. 75-6) Valerie Monogue, Taking Care of the Caretaker (originally published in The Twentieth Century, 168, September, 1960), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 72-7 . In its own way Harold Pinter's The Caretaker is a perfect little play. Like the work of Samuel Beckett, it is a terrifying comedy. I mention Beckett, not only paraplanner resume, because Pinter has acknowledged his indebtedness to global research, the Parisianized Irishman, but because The Caretaker is a variation on the theme that has begun to haunt the stage since the younger men of the theatre began waiting for Godot.
This does not mean that Pinter is not an original talent: the specific English accent of his play lends it its own stamp. (p. 145) Plays like The Caretaker owe some of their fascination to ambiguity. But this ambiguity covers what is inherently a simple—perhaps too simple—design. Hence they disturb without actually moving us. The artistic plan is narrower than it pretends to essay on a, be; the ambiguity is an unconscious spiritual device whereby the author, uncommitted in his soul in relation to the bewilderment and anguish life causes him, remains congealed in warming thesis statement, his quandary—a situation which may after all be easier to bear than an outright decision as to how to resolve or change it. It is a tribute to the talent and value of cambridge service review, The Caretaker —one of the most representative plays in the contemporary English-language theatre—that it can provoke such thoughts, conjectures and perhaps controversies. (p. 147) Harold Clurman, Harold Pinter (1961), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp.
145-47 . It isn't hard to see why The Caretaker should have been interpreted as a morality play in which Davies is global warming thesis Everyman, Aston Christ and Mick the Devil. But it won't do; the characters are far too actual for that, the play has too many incongruities and excrescences, there is too much movement beneath the surface. I think it far more to the point to consider the three men as constituting a triad roughly on the order of the argumentative essay about, brothers Karamazov—the major faculties of man's being, appearing as a triple irruption from the depths of the dramatist's imagination. And like Dostoevsky's brothers the global research statement, characters of Pinter's drama are not therefore symbols but mysterious new creations; their reality is argumentative drain self-contained, so that they do not so much indicate meaning as irradiate it. What then is wrong, or rather, less than magnificently right about The Caretaker? The final image is achieved: of unbearable loneliness, of war in the members of the body, and yet also of a persistent blind movement toward communion and authentic life. (pp. 98-9)
And yet there is a weakness somewhere, an ultimate failure of global paper thesis, establishment , a final deprivation of fullness, of the write college, sense of inevitability and of the vision of reality freshly apprehended. It seems to me that all this is due not to Pinter's untraditional dramaturgy but to the fact that he is not untraditional enough. That is to say, his play is too much a thing of jarring styles, characterizations and motivations, not a consistent piece of relentlessly exhibited discovery, such as we find true in the work of Beckett and in most of global warming research paper, Ionesco. (p. 99) Richard Gilman, Straightforward Mystification (1961), in his Common and Uncommon Masks: Writings on Theatre 1961–1970 (copyright © 1971 by Richard Gilman; reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc.), Random House, 1971, pp. 97-100 . Within each Pinter room, the props seem to warming research paper, be realistically functional, and global only in retrospect do they acquire symbolic significance. Consider, for essay review example, Pinter's treatment of such crucial details as food and clothing, in comparison with the casual realism of Osborne, or the frank symbolism of Beckett. The various preparations for tea in Look Back in global warming research thesis, Anger seem to eileen cormier dissertation, be parallelled by the prosaic cocoa, tea, bread, sandwiches, crackers of Pinter's plays; in sharp contrast is the farcical and warming research thesis stylized carrot-turnip-radish business of service, Godot . So too, three men grabbing for an old man's bag in paper, The Caretaker has few of the eileen cormier, symbolic overtones of the slapstick juggling of derbies in Godot . It is, however, in their respective use of warming research paper statement, that innocuous prop, a pair of shoes, that the different symbolic ctechniques of wedding, Beckett and Pinter are in global warming thesis, most graphic evidence. Argumentative Essay Drain! Early in Godot , Vladimir establishes shoes as a metaphysical symbol: There's man all over for global warming thesis statement you, blaming on his boots the faults of his feet. At the end of Godot , it is by virtue of being barefoot that Estragon admits he has always compared himself to a application letter college, Christ.
In Pinter's Caretaker , the warming paper, old man keeps trying on different shoes that might enable him to get on the road to Sidcup, where he claims to have left his identity papers. Each pair of on a celebration, shoes is rejected for specific misfit—a bit small, too pointed, no laces—before the global paper, curtain-lines of the play: they're all right … if I was to … get my papers … would you … would you let … would you … if I got down … and got my…. The finality of the fragments indicates that no shoes can ever fit, that the journey to Sidcup cannot be made. Thus, the symbolic significance of the shoes is instantaneous with Beckett, cumulative with Pinter. Most crucial to an understanding of Pinter's theatre is the symbolism of his characters. For all their initially realistic appearance, their cumulative impact embraces the whole of humanity.
In so generalizing, Pinter extends the meaning of his characters beyond such particulars as Osborne treats; nevertheless, he does not achieve the metaphysical scope upon which Beckett insists, from his opening lines: Nothing to be done. Pinter's defenseless victims are a middle-aged wife, a man who asks too many questions, an ex-pianist, a broken old man. Ruthlessly robbed of any distinction, they come to thesis statement, portray the human condition. Global Research Thesis Statement! And Pinter's villains, initially as unpreprossessing as the victims, gradually reveal their insidious significance through some of the most skillful dialogue on the English stage today . For it is descriptive essay wedding celebration language that betrays the paper thesis, villains—more pat, more cliche-ridden, with more brute power than that of their victims. Even hostile critics have commented on the brilliance of Pinter's dialogue, and it is in the lines of his villains that he achieves precise dramatic timing and economical manipulation of commonplaces. Representatives of the System, Pinter's villains give direct expression to its dogma.
In the plays of Osborne and write letter for nursing Beckett, which also implicitly attack the System, the global warming paper thesis, oppressive forces are presented through the words of their victims. (pp. 79-81) Pinter's drama savagely indicts a System which sports maudlin physical comforts, vulgar brand names, and global warming research paper statement vicious vestiges of global research paper thesis statement, a religious tradition. Pinter's villains descend from motorized vans to global statement, close in on their victims in stuffy, shabby rooms. Global Warming! The System they represent is as stuffy and shabby; one cannot, as in Osborne's realistic dramas, marry into it, or sneak into it, or even rave against global warming paper thesis, it in self-expressive anger. The essence of the Pinter victim is his final sputtering helplessness. Although Pinter's God-surrogates are as invisible as Godot, there is no ambiguity about their message.
They send henchmen not to bless but to curse, not to redeem but to annihilate. Global Thesis! As compared to the long, dull wait for Godot, Pinter's victims are more swiftly stricken with a deadly weapon—the most brilliant and brutal stylization of contemporary cliche on paraplanner the English stage today. (p. 92) Ruby Cohn, The World of Harold Pinter (first published in The Drama Review, Vol. 6, No.
3, March, 1962; © 1962 by The Drama Review; reprinted by permission; all rights reserved), in global warming thesis, Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 78-92 . At his best, Pinter is a dramatist of eileen dissertation, high urgency, clear color and unimpeachable intentions. He has the research statement, right kind of dissatisfactions and impenitences, the accurate chimeras, the anxieties, hungers and vertigos proper to our time. And he has a high degree of freedom from the expectations of how to a application letter for nursing college, audiences, an aloofness from the theatre conceived of as a place of mutual congratulation, a toughness, or blessed innocence, to resist most of the pressures to make his plays serve other purposes than their own—to prevent them from commenting on our condition, or offering explanations or providing us with solace…. He has done what Edward Albee has only half done—he has broken through to a new dimension of drama, which means a present dimension of experience. Global Research Thesis! (p. 93) Pinter's plays introduce us to how to write for nursing, a reality we do recognize as our own, though it is one which we cannot truly know until someone like him gives it its proper telling shape outside us. Yet in Pinter the action is not in paper thesis statement, fact much more than an introduction, the beginning of recognition and affect and change. The shapes he creates are skeletal and paraplanner resume unfinished, as though they have known what not to be but do not yet know what to global warming research paper thesis, become. Having stripped away much of what is exhausted in conventional drama, having made a psychology that confirms or explains yield to a metaphysics that invokes, and having made the logic of narrative continuity yield to the terrifying arbitrariness of the way we really experience the paraplanner resume, world, Pinter hovers still on global research thesis statement the threshold of a theatre of new events and new portrayals. [Note date of this essay.] Unlike Ionesco and Beckett, in whose light, especially the latter's he has so clearly worked, he has been unable to do more than present the reverse side of existence, the underskin of emptiness that sheathes our habitual gestures and spent meanings. (pp. 93-4)
Richard Gilman, Pinter's Hits-and Misses (1962), in his Common and Uncommon Masks: Writings on Theatre 1961–1970 (copyright © 1971 by Richard Gilman; reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc.), Random House, 1971, pp. Warming Thesis Statement! 93-6 . Shaw [and] Arnold Wesker presume that one human individual understands another, that logical exchange of ideas is the normal mode of communication, and that human actions are capable of explanation. Wesker and Shaw, for example, assume that they fully comprehend the motives of Sarah Kahn or Major Barbara and can demonstrate, by cause and global warming research statement effect, why these characters act as they do; they assume in other words that there is a application for nursing college a logic of action and of thought and that both are capable of dramatic exposition. Further, such dramatists believe it important to make clear to paper thesis statement, their audience the stages in resume, the logic of thought or action; in fact, this process goes part of the way to prove the validity of the global warming paper statement, thesis advanced by their plays. And even where the dramatist is not proposing a precise thesis, these comments still apply.
John Osborne does not set out to prove anything in Look Back in Anger , but he considers it essential to provide evidence, for example, of Jimmy Porter's previous experience of suffering, his attitudes to the Establishment, or his University education; the play, so to speak, advances from the point achieved by such evidence. Argumentative About! There is a basic assumption that, given such-and-such information, a dramatist can document comparatively fully the subsequent actions and responses of his created figures. Harold Pinter does not make such assumptions. He is concerned with subtle experiences but he sets out to evoke rather than exhaustively to warming research paper thesis statement, depict or narrate them; by suggestion, hints, variations in intensity of mood, and the like, he involves the audience in an imaginative comprehension of the dramatic situation, the seeming triviality of which masks its deeper significance…. [The] more he writes the greater facility he develops to enter a universal situation. He does not set out to argumentative about brain drain, provoke sociological thinking or to research paper statement, address his audience on Life like Wesker or Osborne; rather he requires an imaginative response to how to write a application for nursing, the truth of human experience presented (with varying degrees of success) in his plays, and he thereby increases our range of sympathetic insight into the business of being human. And although Pinter denies that he uses symbols in global research, any conscious way, his plays, though not fully allegorical, must be interpreted as poetic rather than prose drama. Evocative or disturbing speech, language which is an cambridge essay service review accurate reflection of colloquial English and yet reflects the mystery that Pinter sees as an inevitable feature of research thesis statement, human relationships: this is the starting point for argumentative about a consideration of paper thesis statement, his vision. It leads directly to what is perhaps the chief irony in his plays: the discrepancy between the implicit claim in any patois that it is the currency accepted and paraplanner resume understood by global, all its users, and the dramatic fact that such language in actual usage reveals not complete communication between man and man but their essential apartness.
Every word you speak is open to any number of different interpretations (Mick in paraplanner resume, The Caretaker )…. [This comment points to one of] the global warming research paper, central themes in cambridge service, Pinter's dramatic work. The terror of the loneliness of the human situation is insisted upon thesis statement time and again by how to write letter for nursing college, Pinter. One means of demonstrating this fact is to show how he makes dramatic material out of the nostalgia for the supposed security to be found in the past, especially a childhood past, which appears to be endemic in our society…. Thesis! Pinter's characters frequently take refuge in nostalgic moods or attitudes, with the result that their insecurity and fearful loneliness are emphasized the eileen, more. (pp. 93-5) The settings Pinter chooses for his plays reinforce the feeling that his characters fear their isolation, strenuously look for global warming paper thesis security and cling to what shreds of it they have got, and are terrified at the intrusion of cambridge essay review, others into the private world they have created for themselves. A painting by Henry More— Figures in a Setting (1942)—comes to mind in global warming research, this context. A mother and child, and descriptive wedding celebration two other figures are depicted inside some sort of fortified building, and the impression given is of a fearful humanity secure so long as it remains inside the fortification but having no communication with the world outside. Pinter's vision is somewhat similar except that his characters feel little confidence in their flimsy security. The key visual symbol is, of course, the room which appears in the title of his first play: there, as Rose says, You know where you are; it is easily accessible as soon as she leaves the outside world—It's not far up when you come in from outside; and nobody bothers us.… When she is inside with her husband, she not only knows where she is global warming paper but who she is; whenever anyone does bother her she is immediately suspicious and afraid. Resume! In The Birthday Party Stanley rarely, if ever, goes out of the boardinghouse, and in The Dumb Waiter the two hired killers, Ben and global warming research thesis statement Gus, have no significance except within doors.
They are never outside in daylight; they can't move out of the house in case a call comes; and when the outside world makes its presence felt either by means of an envelope containing matches pushed under the door of their basement room, or through the dumb waiter with its messages from a mysterious person above, the effect is always sinister and threatening. Although this play lacks the stature of the others mentioned so far—it has the air of a dramatised anecdote—there can be no doubt that Pinter creates a menacing atmosphere. (pp. 97-8) A Pinter character rarely indulges in dissertation, abstract speculation: he is not of the same world as Wesker's Beatie Bryant (in Roots ). His speech invariably remains close to the facts of experience whether that experience is real or imaginary, manufactured for the sake of impressing his hearers, elevating his status, or merely extricating himself from an awkward situation. Indeed, one of the fascinations of Pinter's dialogue is its psychological accuracy in the sense that, as in research paper thesis statement, everyday life, the distinction between the global warming paper statement, truth which depends on verifiable fact and the truth to the speaker's vision of his own significance (which may involve anything from deliberate fabrication to mere exaggeration) is often blurred. Warming Research Thesis! And it is at these moments that an audience will find itself caught between laughter and serious acceptance. Brain Drain! (pp. Research! 98-9)
Pinter's fascination with human isolation and insecurity, his awareness of a brutal world where mystery and tension are always suddenly liable to appear, his recognition of the humor as well as the sinister which are part of human experience, and on a wedding his control of his verbal medium—all these features reappear in … The Caretaker …. Warming Statement! This is undoubtedly his best play [note date of essay]. (p. 100) The audience is … faced with a world of Kafka-like uncertainty; it is confronted with the question of brain drain, identity at every turn. Paper Thesis! Pinter seems to suggest that man is a mystery, unknowable and yet fascinating, living in his own separate world which impinges only by accident on paraplanner resume others equally separate, and it is these moments of impact that provide insight into the overall human situation. Warming! Cumulatively these insights add up to a view of a application college, man as moving further and further from a questionable innocence associated with childhood to the treacherous and evil world of experience; at once pathetic and statement humorous, man becomes a status-seeker looking for acceptance and security in a world that is unpredictable and has to be fought on its own terms; and because innocence has been lost, man cannot trust his fellows, does not frankly reveal himself to them, perhaps does not honestly know himself. But the insights are fragmentary and do not provide a definitive picture…. Pinter … rejects naturalistic completeness of detail because his insights are not validated or limited by such considerations; rather he presents details which are also images requiring of the audience an act of eileen cormier, imaginative comprehension. (pp. 103-04) James T. Boulton, Harold Pinter: 'The Caretaker' and Other Plays (originally published in Modern Drama, 6, September, 1963; reprinted with permission of research, Modern Drama), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 93-104 . [Pinter] has a phenomenally sensitive ear for the real speech of real people.
His dialogue is, superficially at least, of a devastating naturalness. He not only captures the vocabulary of real conversation but also the varied quirks of repetition, malapropism, tautology, spurious logic, and verbal incantation which pervade ordinary speech and which, hitherto, had been largely missed in stage dialogue that attempted to combine naturalness with good grammar, correct vocabulary and logical progression of its reasoning. Pinter's 'tape-recorder fidelity' has opened up a new dimension of stage dialogue; and as such it can be wildly funny. This knack of naturalness has led some critics to class Pinter with the social realists among the new wave of British playwrights, the 'kitchen-sink school'. The affinity of his work with this group of playwrights, however, is a very superficial one. For Pinter is not a realist in their sense at all. He is not concerned with social questions, he fights for brain no political causes. Like Beckett he is essentially concerned with communicating a 'sense of global paper thesis, being', with producing patterns of poetic imagery, not in words so much as in the concrete, three-dimensional happenings that take place on the stage. Like Beckett, Pinter wants to communicate the mystery, the problematical nature, of paraplanner resume, man's situation in the world.
However natural his dialogue, however naturalistic some of his situations may superficially appear, Pinter's plays are also basically images, almost allegories, of the human condition. (p. 66) Far from being a member of the kitchen-sink school …, Harold Pinter is a maker of myths, a real poet, both in his subject matter and imagery, and in his use of language. For here too the naturalness of his dialogue is deceptive. It has the rhythm, the strangeness, and by its very repetitiveness, the incantatory quality of poetry. (p. Global Warming Thesis! 68) Martin Esslin, Godot and His Children: The Theatre of Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter (originally published in Experimental Drama, edited by how to letter for nursing, W. A. Armstrong, G. Bell and Sons Ltd., 1963; copyright © 1963 by G. Bell and Sons Ltd.), in Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by John Russell Brown, Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 58-70 . Harold Pinter has been writing long enough for the shape of his plays, their mechanism, to be easily recognised: a small group of characters in a complex situation; at first both characters and situation are presented obscurely but through a number of warming paper thesis statement, surprises or shocks—often contrived with an obvious ingenuity—the audience is led to argumentative essay about, a clearer and global research paper thesis deeper knowledge of the characters. The action of his plays can almost be represented by a formula so that every revue can now have its pinter-play and at small art theatres sub-pinters flourish. (p. 122) In stage dialogue triviality can … impress character intimately and subtly and can express unconscious reactions, especially in situations which obviously call for review words of greater import.
Pinter uses trivia in this way consistently, and global research paper is here in paraplanner, line with many more writers and global paper thinkers of the global paper thesis statement, present century…. Through the usually unnoticed details of speech, Pinter, like some others at research paper thesis statement, all times and like many writing today, can let a penetrating eye [see] at once into a man's soul. Letter For Nursing! He has outgone his predecessors most obviously in the ways in which he has seized on the audience's penetration. His dramas cannot be received without a continuous intimation of the unconscious lives of his characters. (p. 126) Pinter, and with him Beckett, have also discovered how to link gestures with dialogue so that they make a more subtle impression. The point can be so fine that a gesture has to global thesis, be repeated frequently or sustained for eileen cormier a long time. McCann in global warming paper, The Birthday Party twice sits down to tear sheets of on a celebration, newspaper into equal strips. The first time he does so the audience may see only an intriguing piece of business but McCann subsequently rebukes Stanley for research thesis touching the strips and in the third Act his fearful concentration in tearing more newspaper communicates itself to Goldberg and its effect is to bring upon McCann a revealingly angry rebuke. McCann has been concentrating his attention; this expresses a need to escape from consciousness of how to a application letter, fears.
In Beckett's Waiting for Godot , Vladimir fiddles with his hat, at first inexplicably; but wtih repetition this becomes an expression of the uncertainty of his attempt to live by conscious effort…. These gestures are no longer than ordinary behaviour but are slightly odd; they need explanation, and the audience is encouraged to consider them like puzzles until the slow exposition of the play reveals the inner need that actuates, explains and gives power to them. Global Paper Statement! (p. 138) Such a physical language seems a necessity today. We understand that no man can be judged solely by the thoughts and feelings he can speak about and recognize: he is what he is by how to write a application, virtue of his unknown desires and needs as well. Recognizing this more clearly than earlier generations, dramatists look for a mirror to thesis statement, hold up to human nature that can reflect the unspoken and the unspeakable with more clarity of form and continuance of pressure than dialogue of statement or the indirect dialogue of apparent insignificance. Pinter's dialogue contains gestures as well as words, must be seen as well as heard. (p. 141) Pinter's originality is to be found in his style, and the aim of his style is to reveal the varying consciousness of his characters; to understand all he writes and assess his achievement it is necessary to write for nursing, look through the web of conversation and gesture to thesis statement, notice the other slowly-moving patterns underneath. Even the interest of a play's action is here dependent on the half-hidden nature of the descriptive essay on a wedding celebration, characters' moment-by-moment involvement. It was once said that The Birthday Party is a play with an exciting situation that is never developed.
This is true in conventional terms, for despite its brief story the main effect is to give a developing knowledge of the characters. In all the research paper statement, plays, any slight change of global thesis statement, situation serves to effect a change in the audience's awareness, to global warming paper thesis, make half-perceived revelations click into place. Pinter's dialogue is contrived, so that, when a radically new situation is at last presented, the audience has already sensed the warming paper statement, subtle and slow-developing movements which make it inevitable…. If the final tableau seems right and global paper thesis necessary to the audience, Pinter's whole design has worked: the action and dialogue have the same inner compulsion. This fatefulness expressed in a play's action is not considered directly in words, but its effectiveness is wedding celebration inescapable if the actors have achieved any degree of success. Thesis Statement! And, to help them, Pinter has persistently maintained an intimation of the un-named forces behind the fashionable, accurate, amusing, everyday, trivial talk. The whole design is inextricably concerned with psychological issues, but that is not all. Each concluding change of situation comes with an added awareness in the characters of some previously hidden bias (as in A Slight Ache or The Lover ), or with the elimination of other responses (as with Aston in eileen cormier, The Caretaker ), or with violence (as in The Dumb Waiter when Gus enters beaten-up or in The Room when Rose is blinded).
In creating his complex dialogue and shapely plays, Pinter has found a means of global warming statement, showing a world of apparent triviality and helplessness that must submit to violence and challenge; only in these ways can his plays end. Pinter's drama has something of the rigorous dissection of argumentative brain drain, Strindberg. It has more of that enlargement of the usual to warming paper thesis statement, gain both revelation and entertainment which is found, variously, in Freud, Beckett and Music-Hall performances. But this dramatist is no showman or lecturer; he does not comment, or sum up, or stop for applause. He relies above all on the deeply considered expressiveness of actors who are used to the scrutiny of film or television cameras and also willing to 'complicate' their performances. Stanislavski's training techniques would be wholly applicable for actors in Pinter's plays as in Chekhov's, but more depends on them; no other dramatist of cambridge essay, subtle character portrayal, including Ibsen and Shakespeare, has made psychological expressiveness so entirely the central fact and actuating principle of his drama. The gains are paradoxical. The dramatis personae have become more normal, inhabiting the author's and actor's own mental and statement emotional world, so that any strangeness in the action seems like a representation of familiar fantasy and any violence a realisation of an unconsidered fear of violation.
And at the same time the characters seem more imprisoned in conditions established before the play began and in global warming research thesis statement, the lack of any intellectually conceived means of escape; even the brief and fated development of their situations is inextricably predicated in global research paper thesis, all the essay, petty decisions they make towards speech or action. On first hearing, or on impatient acquaintance, Pinter's plays, like his dialogue, can seem banal; their size, colour, delicacy and weight depend on the actors' ability to transmit under the text the deep and necessarily consistent truth of research thesis statement, behaviour that they discovered in long rehearsal. If this is achieved in performance the author's world can become that of his audience, and his search for power and stability (or truth) can enlighten its imagination. Argumentative Essay! (pp. 142-44) John Russell Brown, Dialogue in Pinter and thesis Others (originally published in The Critical Quarterly, VII, No. 3, 1965; copyright © 1965 by The Critical Quarterly), in essay on a wedding, Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by John Russell Brown, Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 122-44 . The shock-tactics of Harold Pinter's dramaturgy are so effective that his audience, cowed into the pit of irrationality, is research thesis statement afraid to ask why in service review, the name of anxiety it has succumbed, and what it is in the plays that gives them such insidious power. To ask the global warming research paper, question at all may seem silly, because Pinter, we know, deliberately destroys all clues for a rational appraisal: the irrationality is the major part of the meaning. Everyone has of descriptive wedding celebration, course experienced the menace and terror and loneliness which are generally applauded as Pinter's chief dramatic effects.
It is not only drama critics who by sheer repetition have made us accept anxiety and global research paper statement alienation as the final account of experience. And yet we are right to ask the question, because the very deliberateness with which Pinter befuddles us hints at an ordered meaning which will satisfy the write a application for nursing, rational levels of our minds. Anxiety is a word to conjure with these days, but what it pulls out global research paper of the hat is only the shadow of a meaning. And if we are honest with ourselves, we have to admit that the state of shock is enjoyable only eileen, if sooner or later rational relief is in research paper, sight. In spite of the about drain, clever dislocation of common sense, Pinter's plays affect us because they are about the middle-class family, both as sheltering home longed for and dreamed of and as many-tentacled monster strangling its victim. It does not, after all, surprise us that there is more menace and irrationality in this dramatic material than in any other. The London stage since 1945 (to look no further) has been very much occupied with the global warming paper thesis statement, family as a trap-door to the underworld. Whether the brain drain, angle of thesis statement, descent has been religious, as in Graham Greene, or social class, as in Osborne and essay on a wedding celebration Wesker, the warming research thesis, game of Happy Families has provided the entertainment. Pinter, however, is by far the cambridge review, most radical in breaking with the naturalistic conventions of paper statement, drame bourgeois . For he burrows into dark places where it is descriptive essay on a of little consequence whether a family is working-class or professional. If he is obsessed by global paper thesis statement, the peculiar horrors of how to a application letter for nursing, middle-class families, this is not within the larger view of global warming research statement, social class, but simply because they epitomize everything that is horrifying in paraplanner, any family situation today.
He makes us see that class distinctions are curiously out of date for today's theatre, and that a kitchen sink is no more enlightening than a coffee table. When such paraphernalia are made into class-symbols, they merely hide what Pinter knows to warming thesis statement, be the real drama. We cling to kitchen sinks in the belief that at last we have reached something solid and honest; but Pinter will have none of that. He destroys the predictable place of things, deliberately confuses and contradicts. As soon as a situation looks as if it were attaining a recognizable meaning, he introduces some nonsense, wild improbability or verbal play, and we fall once more through the trap-door. His plays consist largely of his dogged attempts to destroy consistency and any clue to argumentative essay brain, a rational pattern. The act of global warming research statement, writing becomes, then, the work of the repressive censor as much as what is usually thought of as the creative imagination. This would seem to account for the taste of ashes, the sterility which pervades not only Pinter's plays but the cambridge essay review, whole Theatre of the Absurd in spite of its wildly fantastic ingredients. But the research paper thesis statement, interesting point about this censorship is that it in fact underlines, or at any rate circumscribes, the very clues it destroys. As a result the audience is insidiously attacked at a level where it hurts most.
Pinter's plays are largely about the running away from certain family situations, and the faster the eileen dissertation, running, the clearer it becomes what he is running away from. Every trick in his repertory is supposed to global warming research statement, distract our attention from those unappeasable furies haunting his mind. But their faces, or masks, leer and glower from the plays all the same. By dislocating our attention from the common sense view of things he makes us alive to cambridge service, primitive fears, destroys the rational facade of the adult mind, and lays bare regressive fantasies. He does not put to secondhand use ancient myths, in global warming, the manner of letter college, Cocteau or Sartre, but discovers the research thesis, infantile fears that lie at the roots of those myths, and that are the ultimate nourishment of the poetic imagination. There is another level to cormier, his plays, one he himself has drawn attention to. Much of what strikes us as irrational, comic or even idiotic, he says, he has merely set down as actually observed.
The way people talk at or past each other, have breakfast together, or discuss the furnishing of a room is quite extraordinary enough if it is global warming paper statement set down without embellishment or literary convention. But this strangeness of the ordinary Pinter uses as a way into eileen cormier dissertation, the more fearful strangeness of the usually hidden. (pp. 703-04) The real power of Pinter's plays does not lie in thesis statement, the shock-tactics of the dramaturgy but in the terribly familiar situations they are supposed to draw our attention away from. We may not be aware of the obsessive fears of childhood which dominate Pinter's characters (or shadowy configurations that take the place of characters), but we are never far from them, and paraplanner a Pinter play can trip us over into that neurotic world. The very shadowiness of the characterization makes his world more real, and makes it easier for us to enter it, to identify. Pinter gets through to the level of neurotic obsessions by a radical break with conventional images of reality. He parodies the bourgeois life which plays out the neurosis.
But his most remarkable achievement is that at his best his vision is not a fanciful distortion of reality, but has the effect of a more direct, honest understanding of it. This honesty is the global warming, strength of all original art; with Pinter it often reaches the extreme point of how to a application for nursing, seeming naivete: the pouring of global thesis statement, a cup of tea, the reading of a newspaper can become events fraught with climactic meaning. Cormier Dissertation! These are not, however, symbolic actions; their significance is genuinely in their being lived. Pinter has a very strong sense of what people really experience (as against what literary convention says they experience), as well as a sense of the mystery contained in the trite and banal. In The Room (1960) the blind Negro is not a symbol, but the real instance of extreme loneliness, of human weakness, who calls to the woman, and who must be kicked to death by the man unable to face such weakness in a human being. Global Thesis Statement! The idea of the room itself occurs in most of Pinter's plays. It does not have to symbolize some abstraction of descriptive on a wedding, anxiety. The actual four walls are part of our most important experience: to be inside a room, or to be outside in warming paper, the open spaces—this elementary contrast is probably as closely worked into our emotions as anything we can think of.
By way of such outrageously simple imaginings Pinter arrives at the most direct and argumentative brain drain also the most harassing view of things, and the banal is forced to reveal its mystery. Every poet knows that the world of mysterious dreams is to be found at the very centre of global warming research paper thesis statement, banality. But the obverse is also true: the most terrifying anxieties are caused by commonplace occasions. Essay Celebration! Pinter's plays are not about menaces and research paper thesis anxieties in some metaphysical realm, but take their life from the very heart of reality, the bourgeois family. And whether we like it or not, nothing could be more real than that. (pp.
711-12) R. Global Warming Research Paper Statement! F. Storch, Harold Pinter's Happy Families, in The Massachusetts Review (reprinted from The Massachusetts Review; © 1967 The Massachusetts Review), Autumn, 1967, pp. 703-12 . Harold Pinter's The Homecoming is a masterful play. I do not speak of its content but of its construction. When a play is praised in this respect what is generally meant is that the warming statement, play conforms to a past model in the tradition of that subtly logical coherence Ibsen brought to the realistic form of the nineteenth century. Essay Service! Pinter's construction is of a different sort. Not to perceive this is to misconstrue the play.
To the unaware theatregoer The Homecoming may seem to warming paper thesis, have an ordinary continuity. But if he regards it in this way he will find it bewildering, unfathomable, unreal, to use adjectives which have been applied to it in most of the global warming research, recent reviews. The play is none of these things. In fact it may be too simple. It is warming superficially a family comedy…. Cambridge Service Review! The third and oldest son [a professor of philosophy], absent for years, brings home a pretty wife for a brief visit. (p. 210) The plot of the play, although it is misleading to call it that, shows the research thesis, men gradually converting the philosopher's wife into a consenting whore.
She must engage in the occupation to put her weight into essay review, the family budget while her father- and brothers-in-law look forward to enjoying her favors. She accepts the terms after driving a hard bargain, for she—a mother of three, by the way—is as unyieldingly calculating as any of warming research thesis, them. Her philosophical husband leaves without further ado to return to his campus. The scene in which the deal is cambridge service made is not the climax of the story or the global warming research, point of the play. It is only the finishing touch. Every scene and verbal exchange is as indicative of the play's meaning as every other. They are all facets of statement, one theme.
The play is global warming research paper thesis statement a parable of insensibility, the essay review, death of values, a world in which little remains but primitive appetite. (p. 211) The meaning is to be sought in the lack of feeling, absence of any moral or ideological foundation, the warming paper statement, heartlessness which encompasses all. This explains the attitude of the apparently wholly enigmatic character of the play: the soft-spoken philosopher's wife. There was a lack of living substance in paraplanner resume, the life she led with her husband on the immaculate campus, a place as barren of spirit and pulse as the home into which they have come. Being well taken care of as a whore will prove no worse and perhaps more honest.
How does Pinter make so absolute and damaging a statement theatrically fascinating and lucid? By constructing his play not on the basis of global statement, a simple narrative line, in which case it would indeed be incredible, but through a series of fragmented passages joined by review, brief but unmistakable breaks. The device renders the warming, play abstract. There is a continuity of idea from one fragment to another, a unity of atmosphere. (p. 212) What is the sum of all this? Pinter's manner is dissertation icy: he does not declare himself. He leaves interpretation to the audience. (This is most brave.) He has a keen ear for dramatic speech, he writes with superb control: there is research thesis hardly a wasted word. At first one is inclined to think that he must be either wickedly unfeeling or perhaps that he has no convictions.
But no! Only a prophet or a fanatic, fiercely moral, can be so damning. But Pinter is wholly of global warming research paper, our moment: we refuse to be hortatory, to cry out, plead, condemn or call to account. Since we do not permit ourselves to take sides overtly, we grin or keep our jaws so tightly clamped that it becomes hard to tell whether we are kidding or repressing pain. The mask is global warming research thesis statement one of horror subdued in glacial irony. I do not see life as Pinter does. But it is imperative that he reveal his view of it: it is part of the truth. He is an research paper statement artist, one of the most astute to have entered upon the world stage in the past ten years. Those who do not respect and appreciate his talent understand little of our times or its theatre. (p. 213)
Harold Clurman, The Homecoming (1967), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by warming research paper, Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp. 210-13 . The Homecoming , though flawed and paraplanner resume marked by aesthetic problems not yet overcome, is the impressive culmination of a subtle process of change that set in midway in Pinter's career. It was toward a seemingly greater realism, a filling in the vacancies, in which abstract menace and unspecific fear lurked, that had resulted from his abandonment of accepted thematic developments, of ordinary psychologies and sociologies and the sequential narratives in which the stage has traditionally encased them. But this realism had nothing to do with an imitation of life or the conventions of popular drama, except that, in the latter case, it made a canny and warming statement partly ironic use of them. The shift can be studied through Pinter's changing mises en scene . Resume! Moving into domestic settings, usually middle- or upper-middle class, he largely withdrew from those alarming locales of his earlier plays—the basement room of The Dumb Waiter , the seedy rooming house of The Birthday Party , the dementedly cluttered room of The Caretaker . These theatrical sites were objectively disturbing, menacing in their own right, physical metaphors of violence which meant that their atmospheres tended to carry a disproportionate share of the plays' effects, tended in fact to consolidate those effects as the very essence of the global warming research paper, works.
The setting of The Homecoming still possesses disquieting features in its great gray sparsely furnished room. But something crucial has happened. This new Pinter room no longer largely dictates what is to happen to its inhabitants but only reflects what has happened and will happen to them; its walls and essay wedding furnishings have soaked up their emanations, for global warming paper thesis statement the center of dramatic reality has passed to them. Yet it doesn't lie in them now in any way which we can organically connect with what we think of as domestic drama. If you think during the opening moments that you are watching a familiar battle scene, on the order of Virginia Woolf , or Cat on a Hot Tin Roof , you will be unprepared for what is to come and you may grow disgruntled, having expected, in the second act, denouement, completion, some satisfying rich ripe finale. But the play moves to its own logic, and is not a tale; its characters are only tactically engaged in representing potentially real people, their strategic task being to eileen cormier, incarnate, along the lines of the characters in The Brothers Karamazov , certain human faculties, dividing among themselves fundamental possibilities of global warming, attitude and approach to existence. They are their figures in a drama of the mind, which is not to say an intellectual drama, but one which makes no pretense (or only a pretense) of being a replica of actuality. (pp. 103-04) It is descriptive on a wedding celebration a brilliant piece of writing, one almost no other English-speaking playwright would be capable of. Fusing the most exact and compressed meanings with the most intense feeling, colloquial at the same time that it stretches to a more inclusive and nonrealistic level of speech, it exemplifies what is never considered in our public chatter about the global research, theatre: that language can itself be dramatic, can be the play, not merely the eileen cormier, means of advancing an anecdote, a decoration, or the emblem of something thought to be realer than itself. (p. Warming Thesis Statement! 106)
There is something crowded, rushed into being, somewhat arbitrary about [the] last section. Ruth takes command, promising in the manner of a contemporary fairy godmother to be whatever the men want her to be: for Joey a madonna figure, for Lenny a whore, for cambridge service review Max a young and rejuvenating wife. A whole allegorical structure now rises shadowily into view. But it is too late, it has not been fully prepared for and therefore comes as an global warming statement afterthought. Descriptive Wedding! Yet the global research thesis statement, main action of the play has been completed with Ruth's move toward the eileen cormier dissertation, family and Teddy's devastating acceptance of it; to thesis, wish to do more, to want his dense, specific, precisely nonallegorical vision to yield up such further tenuous meanings is resume evidence that Pinter has not yet solved his major problem. And that is how to fuse meaning so securely with language, gesture and setting that it cannot be extrapolated from them. Statement! The taints of the old worn-out dramatic procedures—characters who represent, action that points to something else—are still discernible in global warming thesis statement, his work. Yet, they are taints, not major infections. Warming Research Statement! A struggle for the new is always more interesting than a successful appropriation of the old. (p. 107)
Richard Gilman, The Pinter Puzzle (1967), in his Common and Uncommon Masks: Writings on Theatre 1961–1970 (copyright © 1971 by Richard Gilman; reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc.), Random House, 1971, pp. 101-07 . Pinter's world … is hermetically sealed off from nature. Global Paper Thesis Statement! His plays are urban fables in which no poplars sway against the distant orchard, no wind underscores human loneliness. Global Warming Research Paper! Man's earthly garden, like the one in The Caretaker , is essay review cluttered with lifeless, alien objects…. When Pinter invokes Nature, it becomes a travesty, not only global paper thesis, of pastoral simplicity, but of all those who would seek to recollect it in tranquility. Eileen! (p. 62) Pinter is obsessed by global warming research paper, the arbitrary boundaries man makes for cambridge service himself: the walls constructed of warming paper statement, concrete, of language, of philosophy, which protect him from a protean reality and give him a chance.
In one of his early plays, The Dwarfs , Pinter states what he later showed: The rooms we live in … open and essay shut … Can't you see? They change shape at paper thesis statement, their own will. I couldn't grumble if only they would keep to how to write a application letter for nursing, some consistency. But they don't. And I can't tell the limits, the boundaries which I've been led to global warming paper statement, believe are natural…. (pp. 66-7) It is in The Homecoming that Pinter is able to achieve his most subtle interplay of naturalistic fact and a disturbing fluid reality. Max's living room seems as logical as the human situation within it seems improbable. (p. 67) The room seems certain to the eye, filled with a steel-gray light as solid and cambridge essay reassuring as a Vermeer painting.
It is immediately recognizable; the objects coax the audience into a comfortable acceptance. The audience assumes that the research paper, surroundings describe the characters on stage. But their response is betrayed; the action uncovers elusive truths of sexual fantasy, lust, and impotence. As the essay about drain, play gathers momentum, the audience discovers—without Pinter forcing it—that the room has lost its apparent solidity. The stairway, covered by that monumental arch, takes on an unnatural, seductive, phallic length—an almost sexual potency. (pp. 67-8) Pinter employs no future tenses. His language shows memory a tractable tool, deceiving with seductive clarity. Memory holds no salvation and no value. Warming Research Thesis Statement! Man can only live in an anxious, protracted present. (p.
70) Pinter, like Chekhov, uncovers a subterranean music. The difference in their techniques reflects the difference in evolving realistic appraisals of the world. If Pinter's world seems a smaller, grayer canvas, it is not a limitation of craft, but of the modern world—which leaves Man with less faith in his mind, more fearful of the dehumanizing forces outside it. (p. 71) John Lahr, Pinter and Chekhov: The Bond of Naturalism (first published in The Drama Review, Vol. 13, No.
2, Winter, 1968; © 1968 by The Drama Review; reprinted by permission; all rights reserved), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 60-71 . [We] explain [ The Homecoming ] as a study in psychic ambiguity: under the banal surface a massive Oedipal syndrome (like the part of the wedding celebration, iceberg you can't see) bumps its way to grisly fulfillment. Or, beneath Freud lurks Jung and global research paper thesis the archetypal: the father-sons contest, the fertility rite on essay the sofa, the Earth Mother sacrifice, the tribal sharing of her body (a Sparagmos for sure), the cyclical return, and global research thesis statement so on. But before the argumentative about brain drain, play is warming thesis any or all of these things, it seems to be something much different and much simpler. Perhaps the best way to pin it down is to try to say why psychology and cambridge service review myth seem unsatisfactory as explanations. The trouble with them is statement that they bring to the fore a purposiveness which seems at service, odds with the nature of the imagination we are dealing with. They assume that the play is about these things, whereas I think they come much closer to being by-products, as we would be dealing with by-products of, say, a story by Poe in the themes of crime-does-not-pay, or man-is-evil, or even in warming paper, the mythic structure which I am sure there are plenty of in Poe, as there always are in tales of victimization. As for the psychological drives themselves, one somehow doubts that Pinter's characters, deep down, are any more troubled by eileen dissertation, appetites of the sexual kind than Dostoevsky's people are troubled by finding suitable jobs. They seem far more interested in manipulating the idea of paper thesis statement, sexuality, for its effect on others, than in their own performance. As for the mythic elements, it is simply hard to see what they prove, other than that Pinter deals in some pretty raw urges, hardly a distinction these days.
To be primitive is not to be Pinteresque. I suggest that it is in the peculiar way the story is told and in the liberties it takes with the reality it posits. For instance, if we reduce the play to its main turns of plot we have something like this: a son and his wife return to how to, the family home on a visit abroad. Almost immediately, the father and brothers make open advances on the wife. She seems to tolerate, if not encourage, them and the husband makes no effort to protect his interests. In fact, it is the husband in the end who makes the family's proposal to the wife that she stay on as mother, mistress to everybody, and as prostitute.
She accepts (!) and paper statement he goes back to their three children. We anticipate that it will be the essay about, wife who now controls the family. It would be hard to conceive an action, in modern family terms, which violates so many of our moral scruples with so little effort and global statement so little interest in argumentative about brain drain, making itself credible…. [The] reaction one has to the play comes nowhere near Pity and Fear, or any of their weaker derivatives, but is better described as astonishment at the elaboration . Warming Thesis Statement! And it is precisely this quality of astonishment that is apt to disappear from any thematically oriented recovery of the play. Cambridge Essay! (pp. 149-50) The Homecoming may be about homecomings of global warming statement, all kinds but it is not ultimately about ours.
We witness it, it even coaxes us to eileen dissertation, grope for connections among our own realities (and find them), but it does not, as its primary artistic mission, refer us back to warming research paper, a cluster of moral or existential issues we care very much about. Eileen Cormier Dissertation! What astonishes about the play is its taking of an extraordinarily brutal action, passing it through what is warming research paper thesis perhaps the argumentative essay about brain drain, most unobtrusive and objective medium since Chekhov's, and using it as the host for warming statement a peculiar activity of mind. We have invented special words for this activity (Pintercourse, Pinterism, Pinterotic, etc.), which Pinter understandably detests, but it seems we have needed them as semantic consolation for paper statement his having hidden from us the thing they refer to. (p. 150) [The] source of our consternation and fascination with Pinter [is] our quest for global research thesis the lost superiority of knowing more than the argumentative, characters who now know more than we do, the very reverse of the familiar dramatic irony in which we know but they don't. To put it crudely, it is the goal of the Pinter character, as agent of his author's grand strategy, to stay ahead of the audience by warming research thesis statement, inventing his drama out of the sometimes slender life afforded him (glasses of water, newspapers, cheese-rolls, etc.).
His motto, in fact, might well be Renan's remark (which I … crib from Chevalier [in his book on Anatole France]): The universe is a spectacle that God offers himself; let us serve the intentions of the great choreogus by contributing to eileen cormier dissertation, render the spectacle as brilliant, as varied as possible. To this end, he becomes, as it were, a little Pinter, an author of irony, sent into his incredible breathing world scarce half made-up, morally, to work on paper the proper business of his author's trade—to trump life, to go it one better by going it one worse. (pp. 151-52) I feel obliged to put Pinter into research thesis, the context he deserves most and that amounts to paper thesis, considering him as a craftsman rather than a thinker, a maker of theatre out of accepted materials. [For example], I find the question of whether he sees the world as essentially violent about as interesting and relevant to his art as whether, let us say, John Constable sees the essay wedding celebration, world as essentially peaceful. (p. Paper Thesis Statement! 157) Terence Martin … makes a case for Poe's play habit, the desire to astonish by boundless exaggeration or confusion of proportions. He is our one author, says Mr. Martin, who makes an absolute commitment to the imagination—who releases the imagination into global warming paper statement, a realm of its own where, with nothing to play with , it must play at our destruction.
He shows us insistently that the imagination at his kind of play is not only anti-social but anti-human. To do justice to his contemporaries, perhaps we should say that what Poe undertook was not to be looked at without blinking. That is more or less how I feel about Harold Pinter. In fact, with just a little transposing, we could probably derive most of the old Gothic essentials from our play: the nightmare setting, the global paper thesis, double vision of the real and warming the super-real, the lurking fatality and inexplicable tyranny, the mysterious inspecificity and yet utter relevance of everything. Even—allowing for an unfortunate degeneration in our heroine—the central Gothic theme of the pale and lovely maiden dominated by the inscrutable sadist of the warming research thesis statement, nameless vice. This is not intended as a dismissal of paraplanner, either Pinter or Gothicism.
If anything, it is global warming research paper thesis a plug for art which produces reactions other than the shock of on a celebration, recognition, art in which the very limitedness of the artist to relatively outre kinds of experience and his ability to paper, arouse the precise sense of that experience are the things to be praised. To me, Pinter falls brilliantly into this category and it is with considerable respect for him that I subscribe to his own evaluation of himself as overblown tremendously by people who tend to make too much of a application for nursing, a meal. This is not at all to deny the good chance that he may come out in the end as the Poe or Huysmans of the global paper, Absurdist theatre—a better fate, perhaps, than the write letter for nursing college, one in paper statement, store for some of our sterner moralists. (pp. 159-60) Bert O. States, Pinter's 'Homecoming': The Shock of global warming thesis statement, Nonrecognition (originally published in The Hudson Review, 21, No. 3, Autumn, 1968; copyright © 1968 by paper statement, The Hudson Review, Inc.), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays,, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 147-60 . Harold Pinter is the most obviously consistent of cormier, new British dramatists: his settings remain relatively simple and taken from the world he lives in; his plays progress, with little plot development, but by a progressive revelation of warming research thesis statement, inner tensions and appetites, towards a moment of clarification when (as he has described it) something is said that cannot be unsaid.
His ear for the nonverbal qualities of speech and his eye for gesture or stage-business that is both usual and gripping, seemingly casual and yet revelatory, have given a similarity to paper, the dramatic texture of all his plays. His interest in everyday ritual has also continued, from a birthday party to a homecoming, through seeking living space, taking possession, or taking care of a room, to global research paper, taking breakfast or lunch, taking orders, fulfilling routines, visiting, collecting, and so on. The development of Pinter lies in his manipulation of paraplanner resume, dramatic focus. (pp. 10-11) Pinter's involvement with the world around him has led him to a more open acceptance of the fantasy and sexuality of inner life and to a wider and more interrelated view of global research paper thesis, character. (pp. 11-12) John Russell Brown, Introduction to Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical. Essays, edited by John Russell Brown (© 1968 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.; reprinted by essay, permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 1-14 . The second act [of The Homecoming ] is a shocker, but those critics, like Walter Kerr, who have implied that it could or should stand by itself as a one-act play are misled. None of the events in this act would be supportable without the first act foundation.
It is also important to see that the central movement of this act and global warming thesis of the play is Ruth's process of self-discovery. Teddy's victimization and his presumably lonely return to cambridge service, America and to global warming research, the fall semester are only of peripheral interest. In addition, the play does not seem to be about the victimization of Ruth. At its conclusion, she is the queen bee, as Flora is at about, the end of A Slight Ache , as Meg is at the end of research thesis, The Birthday Party , as Stella is at the conclusion of The Collection . Essay Brain! It is a much stronger play when viewed as a process of self-discovery in which Ruth remembers things about global warming research paper statement, herself, discovers things she had not known, weighs the needs of how to write a application letter, Teddy against those of the group, and makes an amoral but none the global warming research paper thesis statement, less logical choice. Max, Lenny, and Joey may have a certain hypnotic effect upon her, but it is letter for nursing a hypnosis which she chooses to undergo. (pp. 147-48) But we, the audience, need more time to global research paper thesis statement, evaluate the descriptive celebration, strength of research thesis statement, needs than Ruth, the character, does. Thus, the first act is crucial in allowing us to cambridge essay service, see the motherless, wife-less, sexless family in operation and in allowing us to see the essential sterility of Ruth's relationship to Teddy (three children notwithstanding). (p. 148) Thus, the title of the play, seemingly obvious, must be re-examined.
Again, this is true of all of Pinter's plays. The birthday party is thesis statement a central event in the play which bears its name, but it is much more than a birthday party; it is also an initiation and a rebirth. The dumb waiter is a physical object and a state of being. The caretaker is a specific function offered to Davies and also a deep pun on man's responsibility for his fellow man. The homecoming like the birthday party is an event that occurs in the play: Teddy comes home, But the global warming research paper thesis, truer of the global warming thesis statement, homecomings is Ruth's. She comes home to herself, to all of her possibilities as a woman. What she comes home to may not be very pleasant and resume the experience of watching the return may be lacerating, but in Pinter's world, as in that of Sophoclean tragedy or in the equally fatal universe of warming research, Ibsen, the human truth will always out. In fact, it is interesting that Pinter's titles are similar to those of the early Ibsen. Paraplanner Resume! As titles, A Doll's House, Ghosts, Pillars of Society , and The Master Builder have a double-edged ironic thrust to which Pinter's titles simply add an global warming research paper statement ingrained affinity for the play on words. Pinter has frequently referred to himself as an extremely traditional playwright.
This warning has generally been ignored. Paraplanner Resume! In the fashionable rush to see him as a playwright of the absurd (whatever that may mean) or as Chekhov's heir in the contemporary theatre, it is seldom realized that his form may be closer to the well-made play in its Ibsenite incarnation than to any other structural source…. The Homecoming an Ibsenite play? Only if we see that exposition, development, and resolution have been driven underground through a healthy distrust of language. The surface of any one of Pinter's plays may seem chaotic, arbitrary, and illogical. Short passages of stichomythia about apparently irrelevant subjects may be succeeded by massive speeches recounting personal experience, plans, dreams, bus routes which seem not to fit into the context in which they appear. This pattern is research paper statement even truer of The Homecoming in which Pinter's increased daring in the manipulation of dramatic dialogue is readily apparent. But to react to this dialogue as arbitrary absurdity is to paraplanner, miss the true excitement of a Pinter play. For in Pinter, far more than in warming research paper statement, many playwrights credited with tightness of construction and dramatic economy, every word is chosen so that in the final analysis, nothing in the design shall seem arbitrary. Apparently trivial differences of argumentative essay about, opinion over cheese rolls, cigars, glasses of water, routes to the airport, are, in fact, Pinter's somewhat unique means of exposition and development.
What we lack in global research thesis statement, precise information about the characters' backgrounds and motives is made up for by a very complex knowledge (if we are alert to it) of the nature of their shifting emotions in regard to each other. Paraplanner! What they do not say becomes an important here as what they do say. Paper! Thus, the pause, the silence, can take on paraplanner resume an expository and warming research statement developmental function. Paraplanner Resume! In addition, there are physical indicators. Pinter has stated that he begins his plays with a vision of global paper statement, certain physical relationships between people in a room: sitting, standing, lying, kneeling. A careful look at his final curtains will reveal a significantly altered physical relationship which makes a statement beyond the power of words. Other individual moments allow us to descriptive essay on a celebration, chart stages in paper thesis statement, the development again by purely physical means. The Homecoming with its sinister family history ( a la Rosmersholm ), its clear division between exposition and development incited by paraplanner resume, the homecoming ( a la Ghosts ), its withheld facts from the past suddenly revealed in warming research statement, a climactic scene ( a la almost any Ibsen play), and its emphatic resolution, is structurally a very traditional piece of playwrighting.
What Pinter mainly adds is a distrust of language, a belief that language is more often used as evasion than as revelation. Only if we are committed to charting structural unity in eileen cormier dissertation, a play through what is said, only if we are unwilling to try to see through layers of subterfuge to the emotional truth of individual moments, shall we be induced to believe that the structure of the play is arbitrary or that deliberate obfuscation is a motivating force. (pp. Research Paper Statement! 148-50) As Pinter's technique has developed, he has eschewed approaching his material through the inner life of a single character and has worked towards a balance in which various individual needs and fears may all be answered, if not satisfied, by a single resolution. The major turning point came in Act Three of The Birthday Party , where Pinter, having disposed of his ostensible hero, moved on to examine the conflicting needs of the group which had disposed of the victim. But the cormier, concept of inner geography remains valid in research paper, the subsequent plays.
Exposition, development, and resolution can not be open in eileen, Pinter because he refuses to compel any character to say more than he wants to global warming statement, say or can say at a given moment. But what the characters do say is always to the point in that it exposes more and more what the characters fear, anticipate, and cherish. In this respect, it often does not matter whether what they say is, in essay wedding, fact, true. Global Thesis Statement! An invented past can be as telling as a true one. Thus, it makes little difference whether Ruth was or wasn't a photographic model for the body, or whether she was or wasn't a whore when Teddy married her. It makes little difference whether Jessie did or didn't sleep with MacGregor, whether Lenny's stories of his violence towards women are highly exaggerated or complete fabrications, or whether Teddy and Ruth have three children or not. The play does not operate at a level of facts….
All we are to expect from the paraplanner resume, play is a gradually expanding knowledge of the inner lives of the characters. This knowledge almost always reveals an imbalance which we can count on the resolution to bring a new equilibrium. Pinter's vision of human relationships is basically dialectical. Contradictions lead to new syntheses which in turn may break apart. Warming Thesis Statement! (p. 151) The concept of family which Max and Lenny have is clearly a collage of empty cliches. Responsibility, democracy, morality, quality, standards, feelings, values, liberality of spirit, and generosity of mind: words, words, words. But beneath the verbal gloss, as beneath a politician's panaceas, what we see in the attitudes and responses of the characters and in their relationships to each other is a reality which is prehistoric and primitive, a world where appetite reigns. Argumentative Essay About Drain! Max's stick defends him against the murderous impulses of his sons; a woman is dragged into global research paper thesis statement, the cave and the inhabitants argue over cormier dissertation, their share in her as if she were a piece of warming research, meat; images of how to a application letter for nursing, blood and butchery predominate; any respect for the value of global paper statement, human life is how to write a application belied. Global Research Thesis Statement! Beneath the stated values of the play, there is a total absence of global warming paper, values, a void which is filled by the human family's animal struggle to survive and perpetuate itself.
That such an environment should spawn a Doctor of Philosophy is one of the more brutal ironies of a play which exposes the powerlessness of rationality. The Homecoming makes us aware that Pinter is again showing us nothing more surprising or mystifying than man's primitive nature reasserting itself, naked and demanding, from beneath the layers of paper thesis, intellectual and ethical sophistication with which it has been so carefully covered. (p. 163) Hugh Nelson, 'The Homecoming': Kith and paraplanner Kin, in global paper thesis, Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by John Russell Brown (copyright © 1968 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.; reprinted by permission of Hugh Nelson), Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 145-63. Only when it was recognised that the verbal element need not be the dominant aspect of drama, or at least that it was not the content of what was said that mattered most but the action that it embodied, and that inarticulate, incoherent, tautological, and nonsensical speech might be as dramatic as verbal brilliance when it was treated simply as an element of action, only then did it become possible to place inarticulate characters in the centre of the play and make their unspoken emotions transparent.
Pinter is among the discoverers of this highly significant aspect of argumentative about brain drain, drama. If we examine some of Pinter's favourite linguistic and stylistic devices in the light of these considerations, we shall find that, far from being mere verbal absurdities held up to ridicule, they do in fact illuminate the mental processes that lie behind the ill-chosen or nonsensical words; and that in each case superficially similar quirks of global paper thesis, language may serve quite different dramatic functions. (p. Review! 214) Traditional stage dialogue tended to err on global warming research paper thesis the side of assuming that people have the paraplanner, right expression always ready to suit the occasion. In Pinter's dialogue we can watch the desperate struggles of his characters to find the correct expression; we are thus enabled to research paper statement, observe them in cormier dissertation, the—very dramatic—act of struggling for communication, sometimes succeeding, often failing. Warming Research Thesis! And when they have got hold of a formulation, they hold on to it, savour it, and repeat it to enjoy their achievement. (p. 215)
Repetition, which, as Pinter has discovered, is an aspect of resume, real speech that stage dialogue had neglected under the global warming research paper, influence of the rhetorical tradition (which rejects recurrence of the same word as stylistically inelegant), is, of course, also one of the most important elements of poetry—particularly in the form of how to write for nursing, whole phrases that recur as refrains, for example in ballad metre—on the realistic level. Warming Research Paper Thesis! Pinter uses the refrain-like recurrence of whole sentences to show that people in real life do not deliver well-thought-out set speechs but tend to paraplanner, mix various logical strands of global warming thesis, thought, which intermingle without any apparent connection; while the on a, structure of global thesis statement, rhetorical or written language tends to be logical, that of spoken language is associative. (pp. 217-18) Always, in research, Pinter's world, personal inadequacy expresses itself in an inadequacy to cope with and to use language. Warming Paper Thesis! The inability to communicate, and to communicate in dissertation, the correct terms , is felt by global warming research thesis statement, the characters as a mark of inferiority; that is research thesis why they tend to dwell upon and to stress the warming statement, hard or unusual educated words they know. (p.
224) Again and warming research statement again in Pinter's plays, language becomes the medium through which a contest of warming paper statement, wills is fought out, sometimes overtly, as in the disputes about the correct expression to be used or about the correct meaning of a given word or phrase, sometimes beneath the surface of the cormier dissertation, explicit subject matter of the dialogue. Research Statement! (p. 229) [If] one analyses Pinter's work closely, one will find that behind the apparently random rendering of the eileen, colloquial vernacular there lies a rigorous economy of means; each word is essential to the total structure and decisively contributes to the ultimate, over-all effect aimed at. Global Paper Thesis Statement! In this respect also, Pinter's use of language is that of a poet; there are no redundant words in true poetry, no empty patches, no mere fill-ins. Pinter's dramatic writing has the essay on a celebration, density of texture of true poetry.
That is thesis statement why—as in poetry, the caesura; as in cormier dissertation, music, the pause—silences play such a large and essential part in Pinter's dialogue. Pinter uses two different terms for the punctuation of his dialogue by passages without speech: Pause and Silence.… When Pinter asks for global warming thesis a pause …, he indicates that intense thought processes are continuing, that unspoken tensions are mounting, whereas silences are notations for essay wedding the end of a movement, the beginning of another, as between the movements of a symphony. (pp. 236-38) Pinter's pauses and silences are often the climaxes of his plays, the paper thesis, still centres of the storm, the descriptive on a celebration, nuclei of tension around which the whole action is structured: there is the long silence at the end of The Caretaker , when Davies' pleading for permission to remain in Aston's room elicits no answer. This long silence is the death of hope for global the old man, Aston's refusal to forgive him, his expulsion from the warmth of a home—death.
But as the curtain falls before he is seen to leave, it may also be the long silence before that final word of forgiveness is pronounced: the line with no words in it thus has all the descriptive on a celebration, ambiguity and complexity of true poetry, and it is also a metaphor, an image of over-whelming power. (p. 238) Such economy and global research paper thesis subtlety in the use of language, such density of subtext beneath the sparseness of the text itself, are surely the hallmarks of a real master of the craft of dialogue. (p. 242) Martin Esslin, Language and Silence, in his The Peopled Wound (copyright © 1970 by Martin Esslin), Doubleday, 1970, pp. 207-42 . Meticulously written, with an warming research thesis statement odd lucidity in which every speech is shiningly clear and at the same time, in its context, bewilderingly ambiguous, Old Times suggests (it never says) that the past is a kind of palimpsest, so that one's memories overlay one another and global paper statement one can't be sure which of them really happened and which are in fact dreams. (p. 286) And since so much experience is on a wedding celebration centered in global research, sexual longing, our lives tend to move toward a never fulfilled yearning for the satisfaction of some true knowledge, a confirmed consciousness of essay on a wedding celebration, what life has been to us, an unequivocal grasp of its meaning. However, all that is left to us are imprecise but haunting old time melodies, songs that linger in global warming paper thesis, the air. Is it so?
For Pinter it is. Subtle craftsman, shrewd dramatist, he builds his plays as metaphysical melodramas, their ambivalences fostering suspense. Nor does he omit the irony and surprising comedy of the situations he posits. With all this, Pinter remains a master of contemporary theatre writing with something more than a manner; he is no mere trickster or aesthetic tease. Having acknowledged that much, I must extend my review with a few subjective notations or statements of how to write for nursing, personal prejudices. My tastes veer toward a less ascetic art. Global Warming Research Paper Thesis Statement! I favor fullness; I enjoy rich surfaces, greater body, broader canvases…. Perhaps there is no help for it, but I am discomfited by the bleakness of so much of the modern. Why, I ask myself, must our own art be so sedulously minimal? (pp. 287-88)
For all my alienation from the Pinteresque landscape, I nevertheless admire Old Times for the probity of its delineation, the authenticity in the projection of an individual vision—which is part of the truth of our day. (p. 288) Harold Clurman, 'Old Times' (London) (1971), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp. Paraplanner! 286-88 . Old Times is Pinter's most poetic play. It is an extremely concentrated expression of mood rather than story. Another writer might have attempted to convey that mood in a lyric or mystic manner. Pinter's mystery is wrought without mysteriousness. Another writer might have projected the play so that the audience would immediately recognize it as fanciful. Global Research Statement! Pinter writes as if his mystery were cold fact, a literal and specific report of write a application letter for nursing college, actual occurrences. In other hands, the play's idea might be transmitted with warmth; Pinter's artistic demeanor is tight, glacial.
What Pinter seems to be saying is that memory merges much of what has happened to us into things which we only global research thesis, imagined or dreamed as having happened. The reality of the past fades and memory transforms real events into shadowy remnants of experience which are no more substantial than reveries. There are some things one remembers even though they may never have happened, one of the characters says, but as I recall them so they take place. In other words what happens in people's minds is as true as what has happened in the objective world, while clouded remembrance of actual events may become dim to the point of nonexistence. (pp. 301-02)
Whatever reading one may ascribe to Old Times is less important than the anguish of sexual longing which many feel at argumentative essay drain, the extinction of the past, with all its pleasures, hopes, ambitions and adventures. Thesis Statement! Hence an experience is both real and unreal, never fully possessed. Reality is remote. There are enormous gaps of darkness in cormier, our consciousness; with the passing of the years what we live through is buried in obscurity. Only the mirage of life is constant. That at least is Pinter's feeling. But he does not say it.
He will not be forthright, assertive, ratiocinative. All such attitudes might bespeak a theory, an ideology. Though there is longing and a quiet weeping in Old Times , there is no outcry; there is even humor. Global Warming Thesis! It is a frozen dream of life, conveyed as lucid and transparent. Life, finally, is puzzling and frightening, a wonder and a slight ache. Pinter's face is fixed to avoid any indication of essay wedding, perturbation or plaint. (p.
302) Harold Clurman, 'Old Times' (New York) (1971), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp. 301-03 . One of Pinter's most notable skills is the global warming research paper thesis statement, ability not merely to how to letter for nursing, catch the naturalistic note … but to add to it as the play develops suggestive symbolic overtones that give it greater resonance and at certain climactic moments to intensify, even to alter it, so that character becomes symbol and the work moves into another dimension. Pinter's plays require of their audiences a sensitivity to these shifts in aesthetic key—some slight, some abrupt and daring—and especially to those moments of symbolic expansion when the characters lunge forward, thrusting their significance at the beholder. Warming! The feeling of dislocation that the audience experiences as the plays move back and forth between the realistic psychological mode and the symbolic one accounts, in essay brain, considerable part, for global thesis the sense of menace that pervades Pinter's world. But it is the threat of meaning rather than the threat of violence that lies at how to college, the root of Pinter's menace. The beatings, blackouts, and guns of the early plays are ultimately no more disquieting than the inner disturbances of the later ones. What is evoked by the comparatively crude, though brilliantly effective, devices of statement, The Room, The Dumb Waiter , and The Birthday Party is the same thing that is descriptive celebration suggested by the more subtle effects of the global thesis, plays that follow: the fear that what lurks in the inner self will force us to acknowledge its presence. The result is that when audiences begin to hear the symbolic resonances of the plays, they also begin to feel the descriptive essay on a wedding celebration, special menacing unease characteristic of them.
For that sense of menace is intimately connected with a paradoxical phenomenon: the further the plays move into the symbolic realm, the nearer they come to the world of the audience itself. (p. 7) Arthur Ganz, Introduction to Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz (© 1972 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.; reprinted by permission of paper thesis, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 1-18 . From the first Pinter has dealt with the conflict between two significant impulses of the inner self. One is toward a life of power, energy, and sexual gratification; but because this impulse is often associated with coarseness, perversion, or crude self-aggrandizement, it evokes a contrary impulse toward retreat, restraint, withdrawal, remoteness from life. The desire to shelter in a room, so often noted in Pinter's work, is cambridge essay service a way of expressing in dramatic terms the desire to retreat from those impulses of the self that are both dangerous and alluring. The new life that burgeons in the psychic waste land may be a vital growth, but it is not a spiritual one.
Though the blatant power with which these ambiguous impulses surge through The Homecoming is much muted when Pinter returns to the theatre with the brief, contemplative, actionless Landscape , it is global warming research paper thesis statement nonetheless present. Turning from the grand scope, the intense confrontations, the cambridge essay review, startling actions of The Homecoming to a drama of meditation, a theatre without movement, Pinter still remains committed to the exploration of the great antitheses that are the twin anchors of warming research thesis, his work. Indeed, however different Landscape is from the major play that preceded it (and it is eileen cormier dissertation likely that Pinter intended it to be as different as possible) the opposition of warming paper, force and delicacy, of passion and cambridge essay service control, embodied in global research paper thesis statement, both Landscape and its companion piece, Silence , links them indissolubly to The Homecoming and to the general body of dissertation, Pinter's work. Global Research Paper! Silence and The Homecoming , in fact, are in paraplanner resume, one aspect opposites: whereas the sexually active and warming research statement powerful Ruth decisively chooses the passional life of her husband's family over the arid conventionalities of her life in cambridge, America, Ellen, the heroine of Silence , fails to make a choice between the global warming research paper thesis, two suitors, who represent similar, though not identical, antitheses. (pp. 161-62) Ellen's life is write letter college dominated by warming research paper thesis, the memory of a past which, however elusive and uncertain, has had a sinister power in shaping the present. This great Ibsenite theme—of the weight of the past—begins to appear significantly in Pinter's work with The Homecoming , as Ruth broods over her earlier life in descriptive wedding, England and feels it drawing her back. (Figures from the past enter into global warming research paper thesis statement, The Room and The Birthday Party , but in descriptive essay wedding, these plays the global, past per se is not emphasized thematically.) In the eileen cormier, dramatic sketches, Landscape and Silence , Pinter explores the theme, and warming paper thesis finally in Old Times he lets it flower out global statement as a central motif of global paper statement, a longer play. But whereas in Ibsen the past is a chartered countryside through which one makes a sure and progressive journey to some point of illumination, in Pinter the past is a misty wasteland into which one makes sporadic forays, returning with fragments of insight and wedding celebration information which contradict and confuse as much as they enlighten…. Pinter … is still searching for the resolution to that opposition, of quiescence and vitality, which has haunted his work from its beginning. The intruders in Pinter's plays have always tended to be impulses from the inner self; as his work has become more subtle and more clearly focussed on thesis statement that inner life, the gangster from the void has been transformed into letter for nursing college, the living memory of the past. But given the fundamental antipathy of these impulses he is no more likely to find a resolution in research paper thesis statement, the world of memory than in descriptive on a wedding, that of the sinister present. (p.
169) As a Romantic artist, Pinter has known as much as any modern playwright the appeal of the liberated self. He has sensed, and embodied in the plays, that impulse toward the unlimited expansion of the ego, toward dominance, luxury, action, possession, sensual gratification. But as a late and disillusioned Romantic, Pinter has also known from the warming research paper statement, first that such an descriptive essay wedding impulse was not to be trusted, that such qualities were as destructive as gratifying. Davies of The Caretaker is as near as Pinter has come to drawing a portrait of archetypal man; and research paper though we pity Davies because he is, like all of essay wedding, us, weak, ignorant, lost on an endless journey, subject to age and death, nevertheless, we know that the endless self-aggrandizement of so vain and dangerous a creature cannot go unchecked. Global Warming Research Paper Thesis! Yet so pressed are Pinter's characters by essay on a wedding, the demands of the self that the global paper thesis, only way they can escape them is through total retreat into some state of withdrawal—some room—where they will be sheltered. Persons such as Stanley, Aston, Teddy, and Kate are not hiding from the I.R.A., or the trauma of descriptive essay, a mental home, or a coarse family, or a lesbian past but from the demands of the inner self. Pinter has often spoken of global warming, his admiration for Samuel Beckett, and his stylistic debt to the great symbolist playwright is easily enough perceived. Yet, though he shares Beckett's recognition of human vanity and fallibility, Pinter lacks the Irish writer's sense of the metaphysical on descriptive essay on a the one hand and his humane whimsy on the other.
Of all the major modern playwrights, Pinter seems in certain essentials most closely allied to one comparatively distant in time and very different in style, Henrik Ibsen. Pinter shares with Ibsen a kind of grim humor, but more significantly, an essentially ambiguous view of the human condition. Both have given us figures possessed by a desire for self-aggrandizement, dominance, fulfillment, yet forever held back in a state of global warming research paper, psychic paralysis. If he were not still trailing some clouds of Faustian glory, the Master Builder might find a place in cambridge review, a Pinter play; Hilda Wangel, the embodiment of feminine power, would probably not object to making certain contractual arrangements with Lenny and his family in The Homecoming . Global Warming Research Paper Statement! For the creators of Solness and Davies, of Hilda and Ruth, are both attracted by the power of the descriptive essay on a wedding celebration, vital inner self and repelled by its ruthlessness. That there should be so marked a similarity between the paper statement, first great modern playwright and the writer who has most recently assumed a place in the line of argumentative brain, descent from him suggests not only global warming research, a coincidence in personality but the extent to which the cambridge service review, modern drama is a body of Romantic art. And as the Romantic writer has characteristically turned to the past as a source of fulfillment, so Pinter, in Landscape, Silence , and global warming thesis Old Times , has sought there for the resolution to cormier, the contradictions with which he has been concerned. If his search has not brought us answers, it has brought us his plays, which are significant records of his quest. (pp. Paper! 177-78) Arthur Ganz, Mixing Memory and Desire: Pinter's Vision in how to write a application letter college, 'Landscape,' 'Silence,' and 'Old Times' (© 1972 by Arthur Ganz), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 161-78 . Like Chekhov, Pinter's chief dramatic means are the research paper thesis, trivial remark and the small gesture, which in their apparent inconsequence seem to hide deeper meanings, but which, in fact, ultimately reveal the truth about people in a given situation. It is as if Pinter were saying that the eileen dissertation, most ordinary people in the most ordinary situations are actually experiencing King Lear, Oedipus the King , or Macbeth —that the great dramas of history are occurring every day in the lives of each of us.
But he achieves this by employing very simple and natural means. (pp. 311-12) Robert W. Thesis Statement! Corrigan, Anger and After: A Decade of the British Theatre (shorter versions originally published in anthologies edited by Robert W. Corrigan, 1962, 1965, 1968), in his The Theatre in Search of a Fix (copyright © 1973 by Robert W. Eileen Cormier Dissertation! Corrigan; used with permission of Delacorte Press), Delacorte Press, 1973, pp. Global Warming Paper Thesis! 301-15 . The moment one underscores the word sexuality in relation to Pinter, almost his entire body of work takes on a different light. Even the trite but true idea of descriptive on a wedding, menace in earlier Pinter, of formless fear, becomes differently galvanized. The majority of his short plays and all of his long plays except The Caretaker are concerned with sex in some degree…. There is an unmistakable difference in Pinter after The Caretaker . That play, a small masterpiece of global, hate and fear and desolation, so sure of itself that it often includes comedy, seems to cap a series of variations on materials and moods contained in The Room and The Dumb Waiter . Each of these plays deals with an enclosed space, a seeming refuge, into which menace and hostility seep. Through those early plays, The Birthday Party and a number of short works, sexuality had also been a theme, though not always the eileen dissertation, dominant one.
After The Caretaker , sexuality takes over. The dynamics of The Homecoming , Pinter's next long play, is non sequitur —in interchange, within long speeches, in global research statement, action, in global warming paper thesis statement, continuity of scenes. This method, applied to the subjects of family, marriage, and warming the family's relation to a son's wife, shocks us with disjuncture. One of its effects is to reveal the suppressed—both in the characters and in our own social composition. Essay! Also, because of the outrages calmly committed and calmly accepted, the play is very funny…. Pinter's next plays, two short works called Landscape and paper Silence , were innately sexual, as was the brief play Night …. An important point about all three of these plays is that the writing shows a gentleness unprecedented in Pinter. This gentleness continues as part of the complex mix in paraplanner, Old Times . (p. Global Paper Thesis Statement! 39) Is [ Old Times ] about a husband trying to defend his marriage against research statement, the recurrence of his wife's youthful homosexuality?… Well, even in this age of broadened acceptances, that could still be a legitimate drama, depending on its depth of character, on its honesty about the fears involved on every side.
But I think that Old Times goes further, encompasses more, becomes something other than a battle between hetero sex and homo sex. As noted, Pinter has lately moved more and more fully into the field of sexuality. But he has no social thesis, no psychological bent. Sexuality is to him a territory of powers and warming research paper thesis statement mysteries and paradoxes. Old Times no more says that we've all got to stand fast against cambridge service review, homosexuality than The Homecoming warns us against creeping prostitution. In Old Times the particular arrangement of elements in the sexual field—a husband, a wife, a former girl friend of the global warming paper thesis, wife's—appealed to Pinter, I would venture, only as colors and masses do to a painter, tone and harmonies to a composer. They had to be people, not nameless charade figures, or, Pinter's dramatic method being what it is, they would not have become colors and masses in cormier dissertation, his eyes. But it was feelings that he was after, rather than a schema, the powers of sex expressed through these exponents, in these tensions and warming research paper attractions. It is warming research paper statement that sense of sex power over lives—shaking and shaming and exalting them—that remains after the play. It is the agony of affinities, unchosen but irresistible, that Pinter has caught in the slender filaments of his exquisitely distilled dialogue, his pauses and silences. Deeley and research statement Kate and Anna are very much themselves; they are also manifestations of a giant invisible force.
It is this ability to dramatize the invisible that characterizes Pinter's theater. Descriptive Essay Wedding Celebration! Many have noted that his work hovers on the edge of the rational, that he likes to tease at the border of the irrational and unrational…. This aspect of the irrational, apprehension of the paper thesis statement, horror, is signified often by physical threat ( The Dumb Waiter, The Birthday Party ), but the threat and the fear are only symbols for the tissue-thin security of life itself, the immanent condition of mortality, whether one is patently threatened or not…. Sexual vulnerability in us, immanent as the vulnerability to death, acknowledged or not, struggled against or submitted to, is what Pinter has circumscribed in this play. Argumentative About Brain Drain! His delicately modulated, chromatic, contradictory writing, spaced and global warming paper thesis bound by silences, is like a series of cambridge essay service, colored markers sent up to the surface of a sea by a danger deep below, the mere surface index of a huge buried presence in us that has nothing to do with reason or explanation…. I have only tried to identify the surface markers of a deeper, inexplicable action. The great gift of Pinter is that his words and actions demarcate the inexpressible without needing to express it. The patterns of demarcation in research thesis, Old Times are more important than the about brain drain, becauses—inevitably so, since the becauses do not exist. (p.
41) Stanley Kauffmann, Pinter and Sexuality: Notes, Mostly on 'Old Times', in The American Poetry Review (copyright © 1974 by World Poetry, Inc.; reprinted by permission of Stanley Kauffmann), July/August, 1974, pp. Global Paper Thesis! 39-41 . At the first appearance of Pinter's The Birthday Party … [in 1958], I was a fledgling critic still floating in limbo, a Bisto kid whose nostrils had not yet learned at one sniff to distinguish sulphur from incense. The Birthday Party was clearly the work of descriptive wedding, a playwright of talent. But where I hailed him as full of promise, I should also have noted he was stuffed with threats. I recognised a potential, but underrated the potency. It seemed, then, too like a conjuring trick, a triumph of misdirection, possibly concealing some obvious sleight-of-hand which otherwise would not have fooled an adjudicator of student drama competitions. And Harold Pinter was a magician with a new gimmick: the slowness of the pace deceived the ear. So I ended up saluting the menace and global research paper thesis the comedy while regretting that this new arch-plotter should rest content with producing a Hitchcock thriller without the service, last reel. Since then, I've seen The Birthday Party I think five times and each time it has turned to open a new squint into previously hidden regions, like a sculpture on a revolving pedestal. Global Warming Paper! In 1958, Pinter looked as if he were flogging old-fashioned content packaged in contemporary form.
It was natural to contrast him with John Osborne who appeared to be advertising a totally new ingredient in traditional wrapping…. But in 1975, it seems clear that Osborne was marking an end, not a beginning. He inserted a full stop. Harold Pinter left a row of dots…. Since then, there has been the struggle for socialism, for nuclear disarmament, for Black Power, for Free Palestine and Ireland, for Women's Liberation, for survival of the planet, though some of these took a decade or so to get into the pages even of this magazine. But The Birthday Party could still encompass most of them. (p. 89) Alan Brien, in New Statesman (© 1975 The Statesman Nation Publishing Co.
Ltd.), January 17, 1975 . With the paraplanner, possible exception of a bygone amusement called Young England , Harold Pinter's The Birthday Party must be the most famous bad play in the annals of English drama. Upon its first appearance in 1958, it was set upon in the prints with a virulence that was unquestionably a touch overdone and, on that account and in the light of Pinter's later successes, the reviewing trade has been behaving with grovelling penitence towards it ever since, as though the practitioners had somehow allowed their conservative prejudices to global warming, blind them to the arrival of a new Ibsen. Dissertation! It has been said, indeed, that the global warming paper statement, 'obscurity' of The Birthday Party produced precisely the same kind of recoil among reviewers as had the 'moral shock' of Ghosts in a previous generation, although I am inclined to paraplanner, doubt this view, such people as Eliot and Beckett having already established the artistic virtues of bafflement. Global Warming Research Statement! Even so, it can probably be said that Pinter raised to resume, a new level of acceptability the kind of play in which the audience not only has no precise idea of what is warming research paper thesis going on, but seriously doubts whether the author has, either…. In fact,… all this is digression, prompted by the latest revival of The Birthday Party , on eileen cormier which I have nothing to say beyond persisting in global warming statement, the unfashionable belief that Pinter is the most overrated dramatist of his time (his most notable achievements, I have always thought, have been in the fields of the revue sketch and the film script), and that this particular play, while it has its vagrant merits, is not essentially a great deal better than it was first thought to be. (p. Essay! 72) Kenneth Hurren, in The Spectator (© 1975 by The Spectator; reprinted by permission of global warming research statement, The Spectator), January 18, 1975 . No Man's Land … explores the paradox between chillingly inflexible ideas and a reality so ephemeral that it may be false, and often is. What turns this grandiose philosophical dilemma into global research paper statement, exhilarating theater is the fact that the play is research very funny…. Pinter people tend to live ineffably in the present and represent nothing outside themselves. Events have no proximate causes, let alone final Aristotelian ones.
But in his last play, Old Times , Pinter's characters began to be defined by their uncertain memory of the paraplanner resume, past. Now the particulars of the global warming statement, present are beginning to be bounded by the dark inevitability of the future, the no man's land of death in essay about brain, life. The new and more abstract world that Britain's leading playwright has begun to explore at 44 is still imperfectly mapped, and he will no doubt travel in it further as he moves on research paper thesis into middle age. Lawrence Malkin, Pinter's New World, in Time (reprinted by permission from Time, The Weekly Newsmagazine; copyright Time Inc.), May 19, 1975, p. 80 . No Man's Land , it seems to me, is the inner landscape of the old—when life has stopped but existence goes on. Essay Drain! Hirst summarises: it 'does not move … or change … or grow old … remains … forever … icy … silent.' Outer reality is a matter of politesse accelerating into thesis statement, shambolic anacoluthon. Hirst's incredible drinking is not an explanation of this condition, but the excuse for a complete fuddlement which would exist without alcohol.
Banalities are the only safe currency, memories drift into dreams, the past must be clumsily improvised, pointless power-struggles take place between Hirst and descriptive essay on a the decrepit Spooner—it is the world of Ending Up , without the jokes. Moreover, Hirst is not ending . Global Research! The terminus has been reached. Briggs and Foster, the two young sinister helpers, with their threats, jokes, deliberate nonsense and exaggerated politeness ('Doctor's orders') are surely the alien living, seen through the clouded retina and paraplanner the failing mind. (p. Research! 152) Craig Raine, in argumentative essay about brain, New Statesman (© 1975 The Statesman Nation Publishing Co. Ltd.), August 1, 1975 . Much of Pinter's early writing may be set down as moral parable about an amoral reality. Yet, for all its distortions, there is a weird clarity in the imagery.
In Old Times Pinter's distorting mirror seems to be overlaid by a veil which causes one to doubt whether any reality exists at global research thesis, all. Global Warming Research Paper Thesis Statement! Many theatregoers, therefore, insist that the play is thoroughly unintelligible. They fail to recognize that this opinion arises not from the play's composition but from its very point: the medium, in this case, is the message. Some find Pinter's new play, No Man's Land , just as or even more puzzling. It has been subject to the most fantastic, not to say idiotic, interpretations. If one is disposed, as I am, to take it almost literally, it is by no means as difficult as some would have it. It presents two writers who may have known each other in their nonage and who, now in their 60s, meet each other by chance. One of the men has become affluent and famous, the other has won little recognition; he is poor and looks rather the worse for wear. His attitude toward the luckier man [who, Clurman notes, lives in a constant alcoholic haze] appears deferential, but one perceives in his semi-servile stance a touch of superiority, an innuendo of vindictive malice…. Characteristic of Pinter's art is his refusal to say anything—anything, that is, which may be readily formulated as a position. Global Paper Thesis Statement! The play, an emanation of the writer's troubled being, is projected in detached imagery.
Like the argumentative essay, unsuccessful writer (his conscience, his alter ego; the global thesis, play may be auto-criticism, the two writers being one man before and after), Pinter is perhaps summing himself and his work up in its concluding lines: You are in no man's land. Which never moves, which never changes, which never grows older, but which remains forever, icy and silent. To which the successful one's response is, I'll drink to that. If such be the case, I submit that while it is significant of Pinter's present spiritual condition and is to be assumed relevant only to that (for Pinter disclaims all concern with political or social issues), it may still be taken as an utterance which has its source in argumentative about brain drain, a society at a dead end, unable to research paper thesis statement, move backward or forward. (p. 124) Harold Clurman, in The Nation (copyright 1975 by how to a application letter college, the Nation Associates, Inc.), August 16, 1975 . It is impossible to think of a Pinter play in terms of mime, for the groping attempt of two or more characters to mark out contested territory with indefinite words—as animals … mark out territory with definite posture, movement, colour and sound—is central. The new patterns of dialogue can be regarded as the principal interest in warming statement, each play. All other interests—including structure and insight into character—are inseparable from the 'transactions' in the dialogue. Eileen Cormier! Pinter has worked out research statement his plays, and the plays work on us, through words. On the level of resume, artistic creation this means that … [the] words on the page are the shaping medium of the play, occasionally showing a strain of inbreeding, words multiplying words in scenes that seem autonomous.
On the level of global warming statement, 'audience impact' the words compel patient listening, attention to how things are being said, sometimes against what is being said. For certain patterns in a Pinter play may gain an almost hypnotic hold on ear or mind, even though they do not inform, have no emotional charge, and offer only neutral clues to dissertation, the speaker. On the warming research paper, linguistic level proper Pinter's dialogue is precise enough to warming paper thesis statement, provide samples for a work on global warming thesis statement the Varieties of Contemporary English; and the conversational rhythms alone could be used to train 'aural perception' in essay, foreign students of spoken English. (It would be a much less mechanical primer than the one that inspired Ionesco's The Bald [ Soprano ]). Warming Paper Statement! The precision is matched by a application for nursing, the social-cultural range of the dialogue across Pinter's entire work…. Pinter has a facility for starting with a particular speech-style at a level of mimesis which Beckett found uncongenial and global paper thesis statement which Eliot could only achieve with strain.
Yet a particular speech-style is not left 'to speak for itself', each is gradually made to exhibit its 'absurd' potentiality. (pp. 165-67) Pinter stands in sharp contrast to Beckett and write Ionesco. Beckett—who seems to have been present at some latter-day Fall or Babel of literary language—has created his dialogue out of the stylised breakdown of hyper-literary styles. Pinter, to develop the image, has taken the linguistic Babel for granted (perhaps too glibly at times) at the level of everyday exchanges, talk, chat, verbal games—with an ear for local usage, or rather abusage and verbiage. He seems to carry no literary 'burden of the past'.
He has created his dialogue out of the global research thesis, failures of language that might occur as English is spoken, by paraplanner, frightened or evasive or sadistically playful characters. The words come much less from 'eavesdropping'—that naive picture of the dramatist in the bus queue—than is sometimes supposed. The patterning in the dialogue frequently goes with violent or mannered distortion. Research Thesis Statement! Yet a Pinter character's speech can, eventually, be 'pinned down' to an identifiable person even when it is how to college used to conceal identity. In sum, Pinter's dialogue tends to global paper statement, 'correspond' to cormier dissertation, what we hear outside the world of the play, even though it is made to 'cohere' with the overall rhythm of the research statement, play. (p. 169) [The] texture of Pinter's dramatic language is quite different from Beckett's. Yet clearly this is related to other important differences which can only be listed here. The structure of many Pinter plays—notably The Caretaker and The Homecoming —can be plotted as a half-submerged but otherwise forward-moving action ( implicit exposition, denouement, and so on), while Beckett's plays turn in a static-perennial cycle.
A Pinter character can nearly always be extrapolated (the dots can be connected to draw a familiar figure, as in the child's puzzle), and hours can be spent discussing quite traditional questions of motive and psychological interaction. Argumentative Drain! The time-scale for global research thesis statement a Pinter play can be measured by the clock; there are no 'timeless moments', and no openings to time lost beyond redemption. Pinter's silences are perfectly timed to fit characterisation and to wedding, create a rhythm, but we do not feel—as we do in Beckett—that language is created out of a silence that is, in the end, all-consuming. (Though Landscape and even more Silence are Pinter's attempt at reaching this dimension.) In sum, Pinter has little of Beckett's intense 'metaphysical' anguish; and, again, little of the sheer intensity of feeling—that to speak is to global warming research, suffer and that all language is descriptive on a wedding exhausted. But Pinter has learnt to exploit his own sense of languagenausea. (pp. 171-72) In his most authentic work Pinter succeeds … in 'making something occur' out of the global paper thesis, felt paralysis of words. Warming Paper Thesis! He can re-create the rhythms of difficult or failing utterance with a detached, almost ego-empty method of writing, in a dialogue 'not subjected to research statement, false articulation'. Cormier Dissertation! This is a specialised, reduced version of one of the aims of research paper, classical naturalism. (p. 172) [The] progression of Pinter's work as a whole shows a determination to eileen cormier, avoid cliche and self-repetition.
Each of the four major stage plays has attempted to do something different—and the urge to innovate, to re-create the language in and for each new play is something Pinter shares with Eliot and Beckett. Pinter keeps renewing his dramatic form and global warming research thesis language, at the cost of what looks like increasing critical self-consciousness…. The price is recurrent mannerism. The achievement: the shaping of an essentially mimetic dialogue towards a new kind of expressiveness in a 'theatre of language'. (pp. 173-74) In the early plays, particularly in The Birthday Party, The Dumb Waiter and A Slight Ache , quasi-ritualistic patterns are used repeatedly to give a rhythmic intensity to resume, climactic scenes. Yet the rhythms of global warming paper statement, ritual—responses, catechismic cross-examination, litanies—are used parodistically or playfully to dissertation, dehumanise speech…. Then, in thesis, The Caretaker … a language of lived encounter is created out of the fragmented speech of two inarticulate persons: Aston and Davies set against cambridge service review, the sadistically elaborate jargon-speeches of Mick.
To that extent The Caretaker is statement Pinter's most valuable achievement in unified 'listening' and cambridge essay 'shaping', in fusing the human and abstract attributes of dramatic language. (p. 177) Landscape and Silence can be seen as a concentration—or distillation—of Pinter's concern for 'shaping', both as overall design and as insistent patterns of sound and rhythm. At the same time these plays point, once more, to one of the polar extremes of modern drama: the 'infolding' of global warming paper, language, at once reduced and musicalised, within a miniature play. How To Write A Application Letter! The urge against warming statement, explicit or rhetorical language which was first expressed by the Symbolist poets … has finally found expression in argumentative essay, a carefully limited dramatic language. (pp. 190-91) Andrew K. Kennedy, in his Six Dramatists in Search of a Language: Studies in Dramatic Language (© Cambridge University Press, 1975), Cambridge University Press, 1975 . Access our Harold Pinter Study Guide for Free. Harold Pinter Homework Help Questions. Memory is a theme that recurs across almost all of Harold Pinter's dramas. In them, typically, a person or memory from the past shows up suddenly to destabilize or disrupt the present. Often this.
The primary theme in Pinter's The Room is alienation. The atmosphere is menacing, the players all feel at risk and insecure. Pinter explained the alienation theme in an interview: Two people. The silence and pauses represent the silence and pauses that occur in natural, everyday speech. It is also there to make the audience uncomfortable; to actually give them the global warming research paper, feeling the characters. Pinter’s work, namely his plays, frequently contained awkward pauses, ambiguous or confusing language and circuitous or endlessly wandering plots.
He used these techniques to present the. Harold Pinter uses silence, stream of consciousness, empty repetition and confusion in his dialogues. He does this to mirror the unreliability of language and truth. This goes for truth in general.
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A Few General Facts about How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the 5-paragraph essay is regarded as the typical essay writing task. This type of essay is utilized in the majority of well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in global thesis, the majority of such examinations you need to stick to a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to how to a application letter learn the structure of the 5-paragraph essay by heart. Global Warming Paper Thesis. This way, you’ll be able to eileen cormier complete the exam swiftly and warming paper thesis statement, efficiently. The best feature of this format is the warming research, fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays. 5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples. Here are a few of the most recurrent subjects on global research thesis which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an event they weren’t part of?
Is one able to argumentative essay about brain learn from the errors of other individuals? Is it moral to conduct experiments on animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the legislation on firearms become harsher? Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated? Should cannabis become legal? Should all students benefit from free-of-charge education?
No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in addition to these examples. The Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay. Paper Thesis Statement. The introduction is the section which lays down the global warming paper thesis statement, outline of the entire essay. The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence. Global Warming Paper Statement. The Hook Sentence has the purpose of essay drain catching the global thesis statement, reader’s interest. Essay Wedding Celebration. In general, the Hook Sentence is a rhetorical one. Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an outstanding piece of information. For instance: Let’s say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the global warming research paper statement, topic of environment protection. In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: “Is it normal to live in a world of barren lands and waste?” The question above is a rhetorical one.
This means that no one expects a response, as the answer is evident. Short Introduction of Substantiated Arguments (1 to essay wedding celebration 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. The key is to avoid disclosing an excessive amount of information. Research Statement. As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the trailer of argumentative essay a film, meaning that it ought to warming thesis statement be captivating, but it must not reveal the “STORY.” For instance: Environmental protection is essential to preserving the well-being of how to write a application our planet. This is the global research paper thesis statement, most essential part of the whole essay; it represents your argument. Essay On A Celebration. The argument will serve as the premise of the entire paper. Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: “Environmental protection is essential to averting huge natural calamities.” A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to the thesis you’ve chosen, the best solution would be to modify the thesis. The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to 7 Phrases.
This represents the “bulk” of your paper. In this part, you need to justify the perspective you’re supporting (Thesis Assertion). Global Warming Paper Statement. In general, the three body paragraphs have the following outline: Introductory Phrase (1), Substantiated Argument/Justification (3-5), Conclusion Phrase (1). The Introductory Phrase must concisely present your argument. It shouldn’t disclose too much. For instance, you could say something like: “Disforestation and atmosphere contamination affect the characteristics of the atmosphere and intensify the probability of eileen illness in addition to damaging our planet!” Substantiated Argument and Justification: This section involves particularizing the subject, while still, most significantly, SUPPORTING THE THESIS! For instance: Materialism and egoism represent important factors which harm our surroundings, as they are responsible for destroying our forests and polluting our air. Paper Statement. While initially a couple of people may benefit from this, in the long run, these factors are dangerous to eileen cormier dissertation the entire population.
For instance, in Beijing, the atmosphere quality is so low that people are obliged to use masks to be allowed to warming thesis move around the city. The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the contrary of the introductory one. Service Review. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on to the subsequent one. For instance: To sum up, the deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the quality of our atmosphere, does not only affect the global research statement, Earth’s health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to argumentative about brain be presented in the following order: The first body paragraph ought to include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to warming research paper thesis present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of write a application for nursing college a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction.
Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. To demonstrate that your perspective is valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. Warming Research Paper. For instance: The security and endurance of our planet are highly reliant on how to letter college the manner in which we choose to global research paper thesis statement behave towards it, and the more attentively we stimulate the procedure, the more we will profit from it. Eileen Cormier. Providing conclusions for your substantiated arguments (1 to 3 Phrases): This part involves paraphrasing the global warming research thesis, central ideas of your arguments in a single phrase per paragraph. In case part of your substantiated arguments are alike, you can simply merge them into argumentative essay drain, a single phrase. This way, you’ll preserve an adequate organization. For instance, let’s say that one of the arguments you provided deals with restricting the warming research paper statement, utilization of resources. In that case, you can write something like “Restricting the utilization of our natural assets and enhancing their performance represent essential methods of strengthening the health of the Earth.” Drafting a Conclusion for the Hook Phrase (Facultative) A great manner of resume finalizing a paper is by offering something unpredicted, which may amaze the reader.
A great idea would be to devise a second hook, one which summarizes your essay in only a couple of global research statement words. Ideally, create a rhetorical question. For instance: “The soundness of the cambridge essay service review, Earth is highly significant, and in the end, we don't want to turn our planet into a desert, don’t we?” This way, your essay will present a certain level of warming paper excitement towards the end, and argumentative brain, the reader will ponder over your assertion. Different educational establishments from all over the globe utilize different rules. Nevertheless, one of the most well-established criteria types is the 5 point type.
This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and Content. Focus: Did the student take enough time to warming thesis statement demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the essay have a fluent style? Did the student move from one paragraph to the other in a steady manner? Did they stick to the adequate structure without deviating from cambridge, it?
Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar? Were the global research paper thesis statement, phrases too long? Style: Did the student utilize high-quality lexicon? Did they repeat words too often? Were the phrase structures original enough? Content: Did the paraplanner resume, student succeed in demonstrating their argument? Did they include coherent and accurate assertions? Did they come up with powerful arguments? How Do I Proceed If I Have No Idea How to Write the global paper, Paper? In case you still feel like your essay writing skills aren’t good enough, there is absolutely no reason to be scared! Many students encounter such issues.
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Research Paper Topic Sentence & Thesis Statement… pdf 1 Кб
ExxonMobile Critical Success Factors Essay Sample. ExxonMobile Corporation is the second largest integrated oil company in the world. In 2011 it ranked 3rd in the world’s largest companies with a revenue of $354,674 million and total profit of $30460 million. ExxonMobil has evolved from a regional marketer of kerosene in the U.S. to the largest trader of petroleum and petrochemical enterprise in the world. They are best known by research paper thesis their familiar brand names: Exxon, Esso and Mobil and they supply to more than 40,000 service stations under this name. They make products that drive modern transportation, power cities, lubricate industry and provide petrochemical building blocks that lead to thousands of consumer goods. The company has 38 oil refineries in 21 countries with a combined refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels. Its daily production is 3.921 million barrels of oil equivalent. They employ around 80000 people in locations around the globe.
ExxonMobil’s history goes back to the 1870 when John D. Rockefeller and partners formed the review, Standard Oil Company. By 1878 Standard Oil controlled 95% of the U.S. refining capacity. This had been achieved by giving cut throat competition to the competitors, and by getting secret rebates. In 1882 Standard Oil Trust was formed. This attracted all the interested groups of oil producers. In 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court finally broke the Standard Oil Trust into 34 different companies. Two new companies were Jersey Standard and Socony, the chief predecessor companies of Exxon and Mobil respectively. Global Warming Paper Thesis. Over the years the two companies spread their interests to all over the world. In 1931 Socony merged with Vacuum Oil Company, an industry pioneer founded in 1866 and a growing Standard Oil spin-off in its own right.
Socony changed its name to Socony-Vacuum. Socony-Vacuum became Socony Mobil Oil Co. in 1955 and, simply Mobil Oil Corp in 1966. Mobil Chemical Company’s principal products were olefins and aromatics, ethylene glycol and polyethylene. The company produced synthetic lube base stocks and lube additives, propylene packaging films and global warming research paper thesis catalysts. Manufacturing facilities were located in global warming paper thesis 10 countries. In 1972 Jersey Standard changed its name to Exxon Corporation as a trademark throughout the United States. Esso trademark was continued to essay celebration, be used in other countries. In 1970 Exxon, Mobil had developed in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Gulf of Mexico. Exxon Chemical Company was a major producer and marketer of olefins, aromatics, polyethylene and polypropylene along with products such as elastomers, plasticizers, solvents, process fluids, oxo alcohols and adhesive resins.
The company was an global warming research thesis, industry leader in essay on a wedding celebration metallocene catalyst technology to warming, make unique polymers with improved performance. Manufacturing facilities were located in 24 countries. In 1999, Exxon and Mobil merged together and how to a application for nursing college formed a new company called ExxonMobil Corporation. This was the largest merger in the history. This proved to be a great advantage for them and they became more competitive in the volatile world. The existing Mobil shareholders own about 30 per cent of the new company, while existing Exxon shareholders own about 70 per cent. This company has a comparative advantage over its competitors due to economies of warming research paper thesis statement, scale that help in reducing the production costs and also technological advantage that helps in brain drain reducing these costs through optimal drilling and pipelines used in transporting their products. The long established brand name of thesis statement, ExxonMobil gives customers a sense of security while dealing with the company. The company spends a lot on research and development to come up with efficient ways to manage the energy resources and reduce the negative impact on the environment. They are very committed in descriptive essay wedding taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
This includes investing in energy efficiency in their facilities, working with auto and engine makers on programs that could significantly reduce vehicle emissions. The biggest opportunity of this company is the global statement, increasing demand of service review, energy by leading economies in the South Asian and South East Asian regions like Vietnam, Malaysia, Korea and Indonesia. The factors which have lead to the success of ExxonMobil are: Commitment to technology leadership. Global distribution and strong brand image. Large refinery capacity and financial strength. Vertical integration of business. Cost efficiency and increased profits.
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS OF EXXONMOBIL: COMMITMENT TO TECHNOLOGY LEADERSHIP. Technology leadership is another critical factor contributes to paper thesis statement, the success of Exxon Mobil in paraplanner resume the oil and gas industry. Obviously, in this area, the technology leadership is global warming research thesis statement, mainly used for exploring, discovering, refining, storing, and transportation oil products. Hence, the ability to how to a application college, find new energy sources in shortest period of research thesis statement, time in any condition has been seen as an a application for nursing, essential element of any oil companies want to be the market leader. It determines the efficiency, productivity, quality, reliability and high standard products of an oil company like Exxon Mobil.
Commitment to technology innovation helps Exxon Mobil gains first mover advantages over its competitor in global warming research thesis this industry. Descriptive Essay On A Celebration. It also helps Exxon Mobil expedites and cuts down the time consuming in discovering oil sources and gas. In Addition, it enables Exxon Mobil explores oil and gas in unconventional areas such as deep sea and tar sands or in very hard conditions. On the other hand, Exxon Mobil is able to reduce costs of production and global warming paper thesis statement enhance bringing products into the supply chain from viable oil sources to marketplace quicker than other competitor to meet up energy demands . For example, Exxon Mobil has taken advantage on accelerating and low costs production by applying innovative technology. Exxon Mobil used “Fast Drill Process” is argumentative brain drain, new technology which made an important performance improvement in drilling operation of Exxon Mobil in recent years.
This technique ensures the efficiency and speeds up the timing of drilling process. It has resulted performance improvement of thesis statement, Exxon Mobil up to 100 percent . Another example, Horizontal Drilling technique which allows Exxon Mobil explore natural gas in eileen unconventional areas. It enables drilling a thousands of feet vertically follow by global warming paper thesis drill a thousand feet horizontally along targeted reservoir. It results well bore to contact a larger cross section which increase efficiency of a application for nursing, drilling process and productivity rates. GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND STRONG BRAND IMAGE. Global distribution network and well-marketing strategy also play important roles in the the success of ExxonMobil in the oil and gas industry. As far as concern, Oil and gas are commodity products hence it is very important to global research thesis, bring them to the right marketplaces with reasonable price. Building a global distribution networks enhances the capacity and distribution efficiency of eileen cormier, ExxonMobil’s products to the market and final customers quicker than other competitor such as Chevron and Shell. It will fulfil the expectation of global paper, customers and wedding celebration make them satisfied.
It also reduce the cost and increase the profitability of production . As we know, ExxonMobil is the world’s largest oil company which operates in more than 100 countries with over 40,000 retail service station that enables ExxonMobil to deliver reliable and high quality products to customers around the world. Next, ExxonMobil is a famous brand which exist in the most marketplace around the world. It is very easy to recognise its brand image at research thesis, anywhere. In the oil and gas industry, the overwhelming popularity of ExxonMobil is uncontroversial. Almost drivers are the loyal customer of ExxonMobil, simply because of its brand name is widely accepted globally. ExxonMobil has positioned as the leader who provide reliable services, high quality products, competitive pricing. With the right strategy ExxonMobil has built a good relationship with customers along the descriptive essay wedding celebration, history. It is hard for global warming thesis ExxonMobil to differentiate itself with other competitors because oils and gas products are commodities hence ExxonMobil better to build a good brand image in the minds set of customers. ExxonMobil has been successful in building a clear image which increases customer loyalty, brand awareness and leads to quicker and essay repeating purchase decisions by consumers.
ExxonMobil has spent huge budget for corporate social responsibility to maintain its brand image generally for large consumer audiences and therefore the result will be effective over global warming research thesis, a longer period of descriptive wedding, time. Corporate social responsibility refers company’s activities towards the community and environment which it operates in. Back to April 2010, the image of ExxonMobil has been damaged by the largest Oil Spill in US which killed 11 people and result in leaking oil and gas on warming research paper the ocean floor about 42 miles off the coast of Louisiana. Focusing on corporate social responsibility helps ExxonMobil solves this problem and maintains reputation as high value brand which care about the peoples, society and the environment. For example, ExxonMobil contributes over $35 million annually through its foundation to a wide variety of corporate social responsibility in the areas of health, education, environment, arts, museums, women, minority interest and community services. It has made great contribution in improving the quantity and quality of malaria grant proposals.
Also, Exxon Mobil responds to the global fund’s challenge to help improve the unacceptably low rate of malaria grant applications from descriptive essay wedding celebration poor areas such as Africa . ExxonMobil have always tried to be the global research paper thesis, first to gain access to a market and to grow along with that market by providing jobs, investment and economic opportunities. ExxonMobil provides community members the ability to afford an improved standard of living. LARGE REFINAERY CAPACITY AND FINANCIAL STRENGTH. Refinery capacity is one major factors contribute to the success of ExxonMobil in the oil and gas industry. Obviously, in this area, the company has refinery capacity is able to produce and manufacture large amount of high quality oil and gas products from its own facilities to meet up the demand of cambridge essay, consumers. In contrast, if the firm is unable to provide required output volumes customers will switch directly to other competitor due to global paper statement, the nature of commodity products. According to cambridge service review, the case, ExxonMobil has the research paper thesis statement, largest refinery capacity 46 refineries in cormier dissertation 26 countries and warming thesis distillation nearly 2 million barrel daily basic and production efficiency hence it gains competitive advantage over rivalries which ensure the success of ExxonMobil. Resume. Large refinery capacity enables ExxonMobil to capture supply and logistics efficiencies and supplier enough oil and gas products to global paper thesis statement, the supply chain which fulfilling the expectations as well as the review, demands of warming statement, energy markets. It also helps ExxonMobil improve feedstock flexibility and lower site-operating costs.
On the other hand, financial strength is another essential factors in the success of eileen, ExxonMobil. As far as concern, The oil and gas industry is a very intensive capita business which required heavy investment. To be success an oil firm must invest a lot of warming research thesis, money for purchasing fixed assets such as factory, equipment, technology, distribution network, and about brain refinerie which cost billion of dollar. Furthermore, exploration of newer oil and gas sources and the ability to setup well production process will take considerable amount of money and time consuming. Global Research Thesis Statement. Hence, an oil firm like ExxonMobil must have a strong financial backing to keep track with demands of marketplace. Financial strength also provides ExxonMobil the descriptive, ability to provide products to market. Apart from capital intensive manufacturing and global warming research thesis statement assets, the industry’s accident prone nature requires companies to be prepared taking high level of risk. Without financial stability oil firms cannot recover its business if the investment fails or capital breakdown. ExxonMobil has significant financial stability to execute this successfully comparing to other competitors in argumentative essay the market. ExxonMobil’s growing profit is global warming research, justified by its increasing brand value over decades. Its earning profit is argumentative drain, far better than any other rivalries in the industry.
Based on financial strength, ExxonMobil can reinvest in technology, innovation and marketing, refinery capacity to enhance the productivity, efficiency manufacturing and global research statement gaining economics of scale which result in how to letter for nursing more profitable in the future. VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF BUSINESS. Vertical integration of business is investing in other businesses within the same industry which carries out and sustains the core business. This helps the business to gain power and control of the total production, cut down on cost on and in addition to global warming research paper thesis statement, it generates revenue for them. ExxonMobil have vertically integrated themselves in all businesses which involve oil, exploration, drilling and paraplanner petrochemical refining.
Exxon and Mobil are descendants of The Standard Oil Company. Warming Research Paper. In 1870, the company vertically integrated its business by cambridge essay having possession of a barrel-making plant, dock facilities, convoy of railroad tank cars, warehouses in global warming paper thesis New York, and land for supplying lumber which is global research, used in producing barrel staves and making them all an global research, important supporting business for the company. Paraplanner Resume. Due to this policy of warming research, vertical integration, the company made huge profits of $830 million from paraplanner 1899 to 1911. In 1931, Mobil which was earlier known as Socony Mobil Oil Company merged with Vacuum Oil Company and later in warming research thesis statement 1959 got merged with the Magnolia Petroleum Company which had a market capitalization of $ 125 million and was a major refiner, marketer and pipeline transporter at that time. All the essay drain, operations of the company were taken over by Socony, except for research thesis statement its marine transportation in how to a application the United States and Canada. Recently in 2009 the company decided to buy XTO Energy for $ 31 billion in stock and $ 10 billion in debt which is a natural gas producer, and this has been the thesis, greatest energy mergers in years. This deal would provide the how to for nursing, company with about 45 trillion cubic feet of natural gas throughout the United States and research thesis the demand for global paper statement this will continue rising. This factor of vertical integration has helped the company to accomplish their goals and take power of every market niche in each respective industry. COST EFFICIENCY AND INCREASE OF PROFITS.
Several businesses don’t make enough profit, the reason being they run high on cost. By adopting to cost cutting measures in business operations, a lot of money can be saved, thus increasing profits for the company. Exxon Corporation’s main strategy was to cut cost and remain profitable even during the falling of oil prices in 1980 and 1990. By the global thesis, year 1996, the company’s operating cost was lessened by $1.3 billion on a yearly basis, making a profit of $7.51 billion during that year. Their administration philosophy is to make sure that their operations are flawless, improve efficiency and profitability, and make shareholders earn profits too. For example in one of the Memorandums submitted by ExxonMobil in 2011 on encouraging diminutions in greenhouse gas, the company declared that it believes in a well-designed and cambridge revenue-neutral carbon tax emission which would be very cost effective to the company.
This along with new technology would help reducing GHG emission causing a decline in cost and an increase in production. The subsidiary of ExxonMobil in Australia believes that regardless of the climate change, the increasing GHG emissions cause risk to society and disrupts the warming thesis statement, ecosystem. They adapted to strategies which were sustainable, stable, visible and simple and which helped maximum reduction in warming paper thesis statement gas emissions at the least cost to society and an increased production for the company. This factor has helped the company earn huge profits year after year and has been featuring on the Fortune 500 list since years and being ranked on the second position in the 2011 list. ExxonMobil has several competitive advantages in thesis their industry. The main key advantage of the company is their obligation and unparalleled commitment towards technology that make the business to learn, develop, create, refine and market the oil and gas resources which are not available to the competitors. It maintains a strong commitment towards technology compared to about brain, all other companies in the industry. They derive numerous and outstanding technological discoveries from the amount of research and development done by them.
The global network the company has is greater than all the other petroleum companies in the world. They have been consistent in seeking to develop technology that provides them with a competitive edge. The quality of all its refineries also provides a competitive advantage to the company. The refineries owned by the company are amongst the largest in every geographical area. They are 50% more than the average industry size. Besides this more than 80% of their refineries are combined with chemical or lubes operations. This combination provides a competitive advantage to the company through improved feedstock elasticity and lower site operating costs. The employees of the company also provide a valuable competitive edge to paper, the company. The company hires and preserves the most qualified people available and gives them several opportunities for success through strict training and development. The company works in a safe environment which is a application for nursing college, enhanced by statement diversity and gives employees a fair treatment and an opportunity to eileen cormier, express themselves at all times.
Thus the competitive advantages of ExxonMobil have helped them keep up the title of a leader in all the industries they contribute in. With the warming research paper, other competitive advantages of global warming thesis statement, global functioning company, committed employees, financial strength and a remarkable portfolio of opportunities have helped the company rise as a dreadful competitor in this dynamic marketplace. To maintain its position as the leading energy producer, ExxonMobil must be willing to global research paper, take. on the world’s toughest energy challenges. It must focus on dissertation sharpening its operational excellence. Global Research Paper Thesis. To achieve sustainable competitive advantage, ExxonMobil must invest in eileen technological innovation that will help the company distance itself from its competition. The following paragraphs provide a description of the paper thesis statement, recommendations which ExxonMobil can undertake. 1. INCREASE INVESTMENTS IN OIL EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND REFINING. ExxonMobil should step up its investment in conventional oil from proven fields and new oil plays which will help increase the near-term revenue.
ExxonMobil has nearly 2.1 million net acres in the Gulf. The company also discovered a large oil reserve at the Hadrian complex. These would be good opportunities to invest. ExxonMobil should expand activities on the basin where the company was successful in the past – e.g. Indonesia, Gulf of Mexico, and Angola, Africa. ExxonMobil recently discovered new basins in about drain the Black Sea where it now holds nearly 6.3 million net acres. ExxonMobil should step up investments in these attractive opportunities to have a moderate risk profile. This would be a key determinant of implementation of technology and global research thesis expertise to discover and develop oil in essay celebration unproven fields. 2. EXPAND CHEMICAL OPERATIONS INTERNATIONALLY. TARGET EMERGING MARKETS. ExxonMobil has a very good opportunity to use its marketing and global research geographical presence to introduce its product development strategy to emerging markets.
This recommendation would help the company improve both the cost drivers and warming thesis statement value drivers. 3. FOCUS ON INCREASING WHOLESALE SALE AND RETRENCHING RETAIL SALE. With over 26,000 service stations and 600,000 commercial customers in the retail operation,the retail outlet is one of the big cost components in the Downstream business. There is an opportunity to increase the wholesale customer base through longterm contracts. By implementing this,the company can sell products quickly to increase inventory turnover. ExxonMobil can also save costs through reducing its retail stores through divesting retail gasoline stations in strategically less significant locations, avoid renewing leases and transfer. 4. INVEST IN NATURAL GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION.
Natural gas is a preferred source compared to coal or oil because of its increasing awareness and focus on the environment. Natural gas prices are still too low for ExxonMobil to make an aggressive investment that could prove highly profitable. Global Warming. For the price of natural gas to increase, the demand for and adoption of service review, natural gas needs to warming paper, increase. But the investment in natural gas now would prove profitable in the long term. 5. INVEST IN UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS PLAYS.
ExxonMobil should make a long-term commitment towards unconventional plays. Chevron has been successful in unconventional energy by taking necessary and calculated risks, as evident from its recent oil finds in Wafra3. There is an opportunity for ExxonMobil to establish a commanding position by acting early, but cannot wait so long to do so that Chevron is paraplanner resume, able to warming research paper, build a significant advantage. Execution Strategy: To successfully execute this recommendation and operate profitably, ExxonMobil must secure an attractive position early through its technological prowess and then achieve economical cost of production and yield through its operational excellence. Investing in only exploration and production is not enough, as the infrastructure and technology needed to drain, transport and process heavy crude and unconventional gas is warming research paper thesis, much different. Argumentative About Brain. This might require the company to reshape certain value chain activities with newer technology and efficiency processes. Global Warming Research Statement. impacts due to this recommendation.) This may also require the company to locate or relocate processing plants closer to production activities as heavy crude transportation has been a contentious issue, as evident from a Wall Street Journal article titled “Oil-Sands Pipeline Fuels. Organizational Impact: ExxonMobil is a company with long-term vision, and is much more conservative than its competitors, as evident from the type of risks that Chevron assumes (e.g. early mover in Russian oil fields and early mover to Wafra) versus the type for risk that ExxonMobil avoids. Executing this recommendation would require the company to take calculated risks which in brain turn would require leadership commitment and an organizational and cultural mind shift. Implementation approach: Since unconventional play is global warming research paper statement, risky due to how to write a application for nursing, geological, operational and technological unknowns, ExxonMobil should seek joint ventures where possible. This would help balance the conservative internal culture and global warming research the need to global warming research paper thesis statement, take a measured risk to be competitively strong.
Financial Impact: ExxonMobil has the research thesis, financial strength and strong management discipline on its side to make this happen. By carrying out this recommendation, ExxonMobil stands to improve its reserve replacement ratio, which would influence the overall valuation of the company. 6. INVEST IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES. The growth in renewable energy is projected to be the fastest among various energy sources but is not likely to be profitable. ExxonMobil must make an incremental and paper thesis statement meaningful investment in this keeping in mind the corporate social responsibility and thesis shareholder interest entrepreneurial ventures and academic research. How To Letter College. This will also help ExxonMobil stay competitive and would have a technological innovation in the company. 7. IMPROVE ETHICAL OPERATING STANDARDS. ExxonMobil’s continuing investment in educating, monitoring and global statement strictly enforcing ethical, anti-corruption and other operating standards would improve the wedding celebration, company’s operational and financial strength.
Harry J., Longwell, 2002, The future of oil and gas industry: Past approaches and new challenge, World energy outlook 2002, vol.5, issue 3. Davis, H., Hale, W., Long, M., and Wilburn B., (2008), “One Hundred twenty five years of History”, ExxonMobil Corporation, Texxas. Kannan A., Bhajiwala P., 2011, Exxonmobil taking on the world’s toughest energy challenge, working paper MGMT 619: Capstone, Santa Clara University, 2011. O’Brien D., 2001, Integrating Corporate Social Responsibility with Competitive Strategy, working paper, Georgia State University 2001. Is this the perfect essay for you?
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have been thousands of studies done on the effects of television on children. Most of these studies have leaned toward the negative effects that television has on children. According to a study by the University of Michigan, even though television can have positive effects it can also affect the health. ?Is media a boon or a curse ? Everything in this modern age is powered by media from the moment we wake up until we sleep at brain, night. Have we ever asked ourselves how all of research this affects our reasoning, our power to choose and our lifestyle? Since mass media is used to communicate and paraplanner resume, interact with people. Much Science.
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Return ? ?Refusal of the Return', ?The Magic Flight' 12. Paper Thesis Statement! ?Rescue from Without', ?Freedom to eileen cormier dissertation, live' 13. Archetypes ? The Seven Journey. holaskhndslkgh ohf osidh oioieydfh oihsjfosiiho oihf osajlksa hfio shf iahf hdkjv bcxkj bwoi s hoff hooih oi sgb Well, in my point of global paper view science itself a boon for us, because from morning to bed we need science at resume, everywhere. Global Warming Research Paper Thesis! Science has its impact in all aspects of human civilization. Today its really tough.
TELEVISION BOON OR BANE Television is a striking creation of science in the world of technology. Fifty years ago, almost no one had television set. Now there are more household with TV than ever. Essay Review! Everything has boons and banes so television also has many boons and banes. Television is a resource that. room, my dad put a wardrobe to worship the ancestors. This wardrobe is a souvenir that is made by my dad and his friends.
It is sculpted with delicate curse . Warming Thesis! On the top of the wardrobe, there is the picture of my grandparents. They died when I was young, so I just heard about them from my parents. In front. for a child. A BOON has been defined as a benefit enjoyed; a thing to be thankful for; a blessing. A bane is a thing that ruins or spoils; a deadly poison. Eileen Cormier! In the light of our brief review of just a few aspects of the question, can television be considered a bane or a boon , a curse or a blessing? TV.
about globalization and warming paper thesis statement, its impact . Cambridge Essay Service! i found two topics asked in global warming paper statement, last year's gd . _Globalisation has eroded the nation state and Globalisation boon or curse for Indian youth_. keeping both in mind lets give our views. _Liberalization refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions. operations in write a application for nursing, Taiji, Wakayama, Japan. In the 1960s, O'Barry helped capture and train the five wild dolphins who shared the role of Flipper in the hit television series of the same name. The show, a pop-culture phenomenon, fueled widespread public adoration of dolphins, influencing the development of marine. Dasharatha offered you two boons . You said you would ask for the boons some other time. Kaikeyi readily remembered. Manthara continued, Now the time has come to demand those boons . Ask Dasharatha for your first boon to make Bharat the king of Kosal and for the second boon to banish Rama to the forest. some way with the characters and what they are doing, even if some aspects of the situation are unrealistic. Crime drama is the most viewed genre of television in the United States since the 1950’s (Gever, 2005) and it continues to be a growing trend. This judgement is made evident from the simple fact of.
Science is a Boon Or Bane Science is bane for warming statement, world. Because science and technology has not only grabbed us. Descriptive Wedding! It has also grabbed the global warming thesis, living creature like animals, insects, bees etc. Paper! The vibration produced by mobile phone can also kill the bees. Warming Research Thesis! Some years after end of honey bee is warming research paper thesis certain whole human. ?COMPUTERS – A BOON OR CURSE Computer - a Boon or curse ? In my opinion computer is a boon to the mankind. Dear friends can you imagine the world without computers.
It would be like the life a 100 years back. Would you accept that life? Today we enjoy such a comfortable life, don’t we owe. Sex becomes a topic that they start questioning fresh out of elementary school. Parents blame a lot of research that on cambridge essay review, commercialism or images they see on television . The fact of the matter is that children are attracted to these images, they are not as naive as their parents like to believe.
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Thereafter, a number of T. V. centres namely, Mumbai, Srinagar, Jalandhar, Kolkata, Chennai and warming research paper, Lucknow were set up from October 1972 onwards in quick succession. mother, and cambridge essay service, playing with the new baby her mother has got. Jack, the boy Charlie met tells Charlie that his father is dead, and paper statement, that someone has thrown a curse at descriptive on a, his family. Global Research Statement! And because of that Charlie felt bad for global warming research, Jack and wanted to research paper thesis, solve this mystery. After some time she found out that she couldn’t solve. many ways in eileen, whether it being as simple as becoming less strict or whether or not the father being in total control of the household. In the television sitcom Father Knows Best, everything seemed like a perfect family. The mother would stay at home and take care of the house and clean, while father. Agricultural Subsidies: a Boon or a Bane?
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Television is a striking creation of essay science in the world of technology. Everything has boons and banes so television also has many boons and banes. Television is a resource that can be used to educate and entertain people of paper statement different ages. It is the most up-to-date means of essay about brain drain spreading thoughts and ideas. ADVERTISING – A BOON OR A BANE?
Advertisements are a necessary evil. But they do more harm than good. They have invaded our personal lives and global paper statement, personal spaces and have led to crass consumerism. There should be some watchdog to oversee the cambridge review, advertisement industry. WHEN THINKING of global warming advertisements.
overlooked, presumably because knowledge of it had been lost and cambridge review, his name may have been forgotten.  Curse Main article: Curse of the Pharaohs For many years, rumors of global warming paper thesis a Curse of the Pharaohs (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery) persisted, emphasizing. Children Are a Blessing and how to write a application college, a Curse. Children are a blessing and a curse You’re eating more your husband or boyfriend seems to be getting sick a lot lately but you can’t take care of him because you’re so moody and tired. Your best friend tells you to go to the doctor so you take her advice and go and guess what you find out statement, there ma’m. People come to the barber shop to paraplanner, find out the latest news or gossip. Local news from the barber shop is often more accurate than watching news on paper, the television , especially when it’s about the neighborhood. Sometimes news reporters change stories to cambridge essay service review, make the warming paper thesis, news more interesting. People come to the barber. The Difference Between Obeying Orders and Obeying the cambridge essay service, Law. for it leading to research paper thesis statement, financial problems (losing your job), I cannot think of eileen any other punishable act for disobeying an order.
If a parents child says a curse word, then the parent might say to the child “go to global warming paper statement, your room”. Descriptive Wedding! But, more often than not that child will not obey, or if he or she does he will go to. everyday lives in America. Research Paper Thesis Statement! Children are surrounded by technology, entertainment, and other media that is full of cormier dissertation violence. Newspapers, magazines, radio, television , and the internet are full of unneeded violence. Paper Thesis! Today's media has a negative influence on wedding, children.
Although the media may influence them, does. very useful, it has both good qualities as well as bad qualities. Like the two sides of a coin, mobile phones are a boon as well as a curse . Warming Thesis! According to me mobile phones are a boon to this developing hectic world. With the help of mobile phones communication has become more and easier as well as. revolutionized the world. Radios, TVs and argumentative essay about, cinemas which entertain us are all the products of science. So, a common man has to warming research paper thesis statement, conclude that science is a boon to mankind. Like every coin has two sides, it was science that gave birth to destructive weapons like dynamite, guns, rifles, rockets, atom bombs. have been begging for more violent video games. The violence section of games and television is the leading cause in the marketing industry.
Are ratings and paraplanner, warning being overlooked? The ratings of global warming paper statement video games, television and movies and the exposure and effects media violence has on kids and what research. is the discovery of electricity.It has changed our life,society and culture.It is a great source of power and letter for nursing, energy.It works like magic.The radio, television ,lights,fans,electric iron,mills,factories.In fact we can not think of our modern life and civilization without science. Communication: Science has. factors The Nationalization of BaIn the Movie “Remember the Titans i found many differences between the two head coaches, coach boon and warming research statement, coach yoast. The main reason was that coach boon was more of the coach you pushes you till you get it right ad leaves no room for how to letter for nursing, failure. Coach Yoast on the other hand was. developing countries has picked up remarkable momentum over the last year. While outsourcing has definitely been a boon by global paper thesis leading to globalization, it has also brought along with it the about brain drain, curse of global research thesis statement job insecurity in the US which masks the real growth of US economy and its potential to innovate. As I have worked. Technology: Boon or Bane Technology offers many advantages than disadvantages.
It has made our life easy, comfortable, simple and luxurious. Technology is supporting human so much that now a person can work from his home. It has helped a lot in uniting people. In fact with the help of internet. The Curse of Money Motivated by the power of the cormier dissertation, dollar and its effect on warming research statement, people, William Hazlitt writes “On the Want of Money” to research paper statement, warn the global statement, public that the world is not controlled by people, but by money. He specifically wrote this passage for those who think they are content and in full control of. When I was a child I had discovered television and the internet. Descriptive Essay On A Celebration! It completely took over my life. There are infinite things to research, watch and paly .These days of instant gratification seem to have delayed us as a ginormous society in the fact that we seem to not connect on a human level anymore. Mdd410 History of Interactive Technology Project.
faster and higher processing capacity computers, the ability to share and global warming paper, create such massive media presentations and applications has also experienced a boon to its growth in mainstream use, and a application, even helped make “social” media possible. Global Thesis! The future of multimedia communication may well see us using more senses. Melba’s life specifically. The white people recognized most of the integrated students, because they appeared in various newspapers, and interviews on television . Their names had been publicized, photos seen, and write letter for nursing college, addresses, and phone numbers found. Although Melba had been looking forward to going to global statement, the wrestling. The curse of nepotism In the article ‘The curse of nepotism’, published by The Economist in descriptive essay, January 2004, we can identify different persuasive appeals the author used in order for us to see, understand and agree with his points. These rhetorical devices actually make his arguments better. We can. races have to be watched every Sunday or Saturday night. Global! These races have to be watched on television or at how to for nursing, the track.
Nascar fans look like complete idiots while they are watching a race. They scream, yell, curse , and sometimes even cry as their favorite driver pulls into the Winners Circle. Nascar. From the eighteen hundreds to the present day, mankind has made many inventions: the television , radio, digital watches, and global paper thesis statement, more recently home computers. . This of course is the mobile phone. . However, nowadays mobile phone technology has improved so much that you can get mobile phones that are. Company. Tension shortly arose between Joplin and her bandmates due to her excessive drinking, heroin use, and her outlandish sexual nature (Bio. Descriptive! AE Television Networks Janis Joplin). She departs from the band in December 1968. Shortly after her departure, in 1969, Joplin begins a solo career releasing. Rough Draft The Blessing and Curses of Technology Imagine a society where no one thinks for warming, themselves. A society where books are burned and banned.
Having a house with not just one flat screen, but three whole walls that are whole flat screen TVs. Write Letter For Nursing! What if you could die and be brought back. Agricultural Subsidies Bane or Boon. can create in them feelings of irritation and frustration. As a result they tend to global research paper thesis statement, perceive these small subsidies as needed nuisances, more bane than boon . Caribbean farmers are market oriented and respond to meaningful monetary incentives.
Given a choice they would prefer to have an assured market and. by mechanical ones and the performance of the latter exceeding the resume, former, brings into picture the secondary school essay topic – Technology, A boon or a Curse ? The concept of ‘Cyborgs’ have fascinated authors and writers for decades depicting them as the heroes or the bad guys. But a real superhero.